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U4.S 



UNIVERSITY 
OF FLORIDA 
LIBRARY 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/spicehandbookOOparr 



THE SPICE HANDBOOK 

Spices, Aromatic Seeds and Herbs 



by 

J. W. PARRY 

National Spice Mills Company 




1945 
CHEMICAL PUBLISHING CO., INC. 
Brooklyn N. Y. 



?%hi 



JU 



ENGINEERING 

SCIENCES 

LIBRARY 



Copyright 
1945 

CHEMICAL PUBLISHING CO., INC. 
Brooklyn New York 



PREFACE 

For almost a quarter of a century I have been associated with 
the manufacturing and distribution of foodstuffs, not the least 
being the milling and sale of spices. Few food commodities have 
the importance and usefulness possessed by spices and certainly 
none is as interesting. Yet, surprisingly few people are informed 
to any extent concerning them. Quite a number of food salesmen 
themselves, apart from an acquaintance with the more familiar 
spices, have but a very superficial knowledge of the barks, rhi- 
zomes, fruits, seeds and herbs which they find listed in their 
price books. Many salesmen and others have expressed to me 
their desire for a greater knowledge of the spices, aromatic 
seeds and herbs, asking where they may obtain an informative 
book on the subject. Books about spices, seeds and herbs suitable 
for this purpose are rare and I have not been able to help them 
in this respect. In an attempt to meet this need, as I have judged 
it to exist, I have written this handbook and I have tried to give 
in as orderly and concise a way as possible the information which 
my experience has shown is most wanted. Many photographs 
of the various subjects of study have been included to enable 
the reader to recognize the spice, seed or herb, quickly and defi- 
nitely. 

In the hope that this handbook might meet the requirements 
of the trade as fully as possible, information of general interest 
to the importer, buyer and miller has been compiled and included. 

I am indebted to the Federal Security Agency, Food and Drug 
* Administration, and the Department of Agriculture of the United 
"^States of America ; to the director of Agriculture, Madras, India ; 
to the director of Agriculture, Zanzibar, East Africa; to the 
director of Agriculture, Mexico; to the director of Agriculture, 

Jamaica, British West Indies, for the information I have obtained 

••• 
in 

184887 



iv Preface 

from their long and interesting letters. I desire also to acknowl- 
edge my appreciation and to express my thanks to Miss Elizabeth 
Ellen Brooks for her untiring efforts and valuable assistance in 
preparing this manuscript for publication. 

J. W. Parry 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER PAGE 

PREFACE iii 

INTRODUCTION vii 



PART 1 : EXTRACTS FROM THE PURE FOOD 
LAWS AND REGULATIONS OF UNITED 
STATES OF AMERICA AND 
DOMINION OF CANADA 

1 Pure Food Laws, Regulations and Standards of United 
States of America 3 

2 Pure Food Laws, Regulations and Standards of the 
Dominion of Canada 10 

PART 2: SPICES 

3 Allspice 21 

4 Cinnamon 24 

5 Cassia 30 

6 Cloves 37 

7 Ginger 42 

8 Nutmeg 47 

9 Mace 52 

10 Pepper p 56 

1 1 Capsicum Spices 65 

12 Turmeric 81 

PART 3 : AROMATIC SEEDS 

13 Anise 87 

14 Caraway Seed 90 

15 Cardamom Seed 93 

16 Celery Seed 97 

17 Coriander Seed 100 

v 



vi Contents 

CHAPTER PAGE 

18 Cumin Seed 104 

19 Dill Seed 107 

20 Fennel Seed 110 

21 Fenugreek 113 

22 Mustard 115 

23 Poppy Seed 122 

PART 4: HERBS 

24 Sesame Seed 127 

25 Star Anise 129 

26 Laurel Leaves 131 

27 Marjoram 134 

28 Mint 137 

29 Origanum 140 

30 Parsley 142 

31 Rosemary 145 

32 Sage 147 

33 Savory 154 

34 Thyme 156 

35 Garlic Powder 158 

36 Onion Powder 159 

37 Miscellaneous Mixtures of Spices and Herbs 160 

38 Miscellaneous Roots, Herbs, Barks, etc 162 

PART 5 : SPICE FORMULAE 

39 Spice Formulae 171 

APPENDIX 

Standard Contracts of the American Spice Trade 

Association 181 

Table of Distances 218 

Differences in Standard Time 241 

GLOSSARY 244 

FOREIGN WEIGHTS 246 

INDEX 247 



INTRODUCTION 

The word "spice" is magical and the romance of the spices 
is enchanting. Names like Zanzibar, Ceylon, Calicut, Java, and 
Moluccas are alluring and whet the appetite for stories of the 
lives and deeds of those intrepid navigators and fearless seamen 
who hundreds of years ago, spurred on by fabulous tales of 
paradisiacal Spice Islands, ventured out in small ships, setting 
their sales and courses into strange and terrifying seas. Those 
hazardous voyages, made in search of cloves and nutmegs, cin- 
namon and pepper, resulted in the opening up of new sea lanes 
and passages and led to the discovery of the new world. The 
story of the spices reaches down through the ages, past the 
voyages of discovery and the travels of the Venetian, into the 
lives and times of history's earliest civilizations. But interest- 
ing as it all is, I have not made the history of the various spices 
and the spice trade a subject of this book. That and the romantic 
stories associated with the aromatic plants will probably occupy 
my labors on another and future occasion. 

As with history, much could be written on the botany of 
the aromatic plants. Long, detailed botanical descriptions could 
be given of propagation and cultivation, of roots, stems, leaves, 
flowers and fruits, of nutrition and reproduction, but I am of 
the opinion that those for whom this work is intended, although 
probably interested in such information, yet would find it of 
little use-value in their everyday business activities. I have, there- 
fore, restricted such information to the common and botanical 
names of the plants and the families to which they belong and 
to as brief a description of each plant as the subject permits. 

Classification 

The classification of spices is a difficult matter and a con- 
troversial one in itself. An attempt might be made to divide the 

vii 



Vlll 



Introduction 



aromatic plants into groups of rhizomes, barks, leaves and fruits 
(or seeds as they are generally termed) or into family groups 
as the botanist probably would do. To cover the principal aromatic 
plants mentioned in this book, the latter system would mean 
arranging them in fourteen family groups, as follows : 



Family Cruciferae 


Mustard, white am 


(Mustard family) 




Labiatae 


Marjoram 


(Mint family) 


Mint 




Origanum 




Rosemary 




Sage 




Savory 




Sweet basil 




Thyme 


Lauraceae 


Cinnamon 


(Laurel family) 


Cassia 




Laurel leaves 


Leguminosae 


Fenugreek 


(Pea family) 




Liliaceae 


Garlic 


(Lily family) 


Onion 


Magnoliaceae 


Star Anise 


(Magnolia family) 




Myristicaceae 


Nutmeg 


(Nutmeg family) 


Mace 


Myrtaceae 


Allspice 


(Myrtle family) 


Cloves 


Papaveraceae 


Poppy 


(Poppy family) 




Pedaliaceae 


Sesame 


(Sesamum family) 




Piperaceae 


Pepper, 


(Pepper family) 


black and white 



Introduction ix 

Family Solanaceae Pepper, red 

(Potato family) Cayenne 

Chillies 
Paprika 

Umbelliferae Anise 

(Parsley or Carrot Caraway 
family) Celery 

Coriander 

Cumin 

Dill 

Fennel 

Parsley 

Zingiberaceae Cardamom 

(Ginger family) Ginger 

Turmeric 

However, I believe this family grouping of the plants would 
convey little, if anything, to the reader untrained in botany 
and unfamiliar with botanical methods. To such a reader it 
could be confusing and perplexing. He probably would find it 
difficult to associate laurel leaves with cinnamon, cardamom 
with turmeric or understand the relationship of garlic to lilies 
or cayenne pepper to potatoes. 

It seems to me, the best classification to adopt is one which 
agrees with the manner the aromatic plants are thought of in the 
trade everywhere, that is, spices, aromatic seeds, and herbs. This 
I have done and under spices, I have included allspice, cinnamon, 
cassia, cloves, ginger, mace, nutmeg, black and white pepper, 
red peppers (capsicum fruits including cayenne, chillies and pap- 
rika), and turmeric. Under aromatic seeds I have included anise, 
cardamom, caraway, celery, cumin, coriander, dill, fennel, 
fenugreek, mustard, poppy, sesame, and star anise. Under herbs 
T have included laurel leaA^es,* marjoram, mint, origanum, 



* Laurel leaves belong to the sweet bay laurel tree Laurus nobilis which 
definitely does not belong to the above group of herbaceous plants but because 
laurel leaves are used for flavoring purposes in a similar manner to the leaves 
of sage, savory, etc., they have been included amongst the herbs. Laurel 
leaves are also known as bay leaves. 



x Introduction 

parsley, rosemary, sage, savory, sweet basil and thyme. Garlic 
and onion I have grouped alone. This system, I believe, is the 
most practical for the purpose in mind and I doubt that readers 
will quarrel with me about the matter. It should be pointed out 
that many of the seeds, so-called, are really dried fruits. For 
example, coriander "seed" is in fact the dried fruit of the plant. 
However, in business the merchants do not speak of coriander 
fruit, but coriander seed. So, seed it is ! 

Properties 

The physical properties have been given as completely as 
possible but with the aid of as few botanical terms as each sub- 
ject of study would permit, and all measurements are recorded 
in inches or parts of an inch. Not everybody is familiar with 
the metric system and in this country metric measurements are 
meaningless to a large number of people. The color, size and 
shape, appearance, aroma and taste given for the various spices, 
aromatic seeds, and herbs were arrived at as a result of a long 
and exacting study of representative samples by the author in 
his own laboratory. Macroscopical and microscopical observa- 
tions were carefully recorded and all photographs and photo- 
micrographs of the subjects are by the author. The number of 
seeds to the ounce and pound were arrived at by counting a num- 
ber of the seeds considered representative of the lot, weighing 
them on the analytical balance and applying simple arithmetic. 

Uses 

Only the principal culinary and commercial foodstuff uses for 
the spices, seeds, and herbs are given in this book and these 
only in a general way. It must not be concluded that they ex- 
haust the list of uses for which the spices, seeds, and herbs and 
their essential oils are employed. On the contrary, cook books 
are teeming with recipes, old and new, in which the principal 
flavoring ingredients are members of the spice family. Hundreds 
of available recipes for flavoring extracts and emulsions, beverages 
and liqueurs depend upon the spices or their essential oils. In 



Introduction xi 

addition, a long list of medicinal, antiseptic and germicide, per- 
fumery and cosmetic formulae exists in which the rich essential 
oils of the spices, aromatic seeds, and herbs are important con- 
stituents. 

Adulteration 

The adulteration of foodstuffs is a deplorable matter but 
thanks to the far-reaching and effective pure food laws now 
existing, the evil has been considerably lessened. Food products 
entering the country must conform to government standards 
and food inspectors keep a vigilant eye on the movement of all 
such goods. Foodstuffs manufactured within the country must 
also conform to regulations and there is probably not a day when 
an inspector has not taken from the shelf of the retailer some 
item for analysis. Such work in the public interest is to be highly 
commended and the officials responsible for the enforcement 
of our food laws should have the full cooperation of all food 
manufacturers. The American Spice Trade Association and the 
Canadian Spice Association have taken a very definite and thor- 
ough interest in such matters and are recognized for this and 
for their efforts to create protective measures against unscrupulous 
exporters abroad and to discourage unsavory business practices 
amongst their fraternity at home. Reputable spice-millers, and 
they are in the majority, frown upon all forms of adulteration. 
However, the adulteration of spices has not been wholly elim- 
inated and in the text I have given mention to the matter and 
indicated the more common adulterants for each spice, seed, 
or herb considered liable to adulteration. The list of adulterants 
is not a short one and because those who are determined to evade 
the pure food laws and ignore the practices of fair business men 
are always seeking the perfect (in their opinion) adulterant, it 
shall probably never be complete. 

Adulteration must be distinguished from the legitimate com- 
pounding of spices. Many buyers seek compound goods and as 
long as spices are compounded in conformity with government 
regulations, labelled and sold as compound goods in the manner. 



xii Introduction 

prescribed by law, then there can be nothing wrong legally or 
morally on the part of the seller. 

Grinding 

Under this heading, I have merely mentioned the degree of 
fineness which experience has shown the spice, seed or herb 
should possess in the ground state. The degrees mentioned 
meet the general requirements of consumers although every 
grinder of spices will meet with the occasional request for a finer 
or coarser mesh. 

Considerable progress has been made in grinding machinery 
since the days when the stone mill was in general use. The grind- 
ing principal of the stone mill is indeed a very old one and for 
certain manufacturing processes its fine grinding effectiveness is 
as yet unsurpassed. Stone mills are employed for the fine grind- 
ing of grains, paints, pastes, etc., but they are rarely found in 
modern spice-grinding plants. Today spices are ground with 
the aid of hammer mills, attrition mills, roller mills, limited 
mills, pulverizers and other mechanical grinding equipment. 
Efficient knife cutters are available to reduce barks and roots 
to the right size for grinding. Modern mechanical sifters are 
used to bring the ground products to the different degrees of 
fineness required. Shrinkage in milling has also been consider- 
ably lessened. Modern grinding machines have practically el- 
iminated loss of spice by preventing the escape of the finely 
ground product so general under old methods with faulty 
or poorly constructed machinery in use. Today no efficient man- 
agement will tolerate such a condition causing, as it does, a loss 
of profit on the one hand and employee unrest on the other be- 
cause of resultant unpleasant working conditions. With modern 
appliances, these faults are very largely overcome. 

The all-important volatile oil content of spices, aromatic seeds, 
and herbs must be conserved, and cool, efficient milling is nec- 
essary if loss is to be avoided. 

Shrinkage in grinding is an important factor and one which 



Introduction xiii 

i\ 

must have the attention of the spice miller. If it cannot be elim- 
inated entirely, then it must be reduced to its lowest figure and 
always allowed for in cost accounting. Competition in pre-war 
times was very keen and undoubtedly will be again if our economic 
system follows its previous bent when the present world conflict 
is over, therefore, the spice miller must pay attention to the 
elimination of waste and loss of every kind if he wishes to 
succeed. Not cheap labor and inefficient machinery, but efficient, 
contented employees and modern, dust-proof, cool, efficient ma- 
chinery is the way to success. 



Packing 

The method of packing and weight of packages vary for 
many spices according to the requirements of the markets for 
which they are intended. For example, Zanzibar cloves are 
packed in bales of 140; to 145 pounds for the U.S.A. market, in 
bales of 140 pounds for the London market, and in bales of 175 
and 195 pounds for the Calcutta market. The cloves are packed 
in bales made of raffia-like matting imported from Lamu and 
if the cargo is likely to be transshipped, the bales are each cov- 
ered with sacking. In this book, I have given the customary 
weight and style of package for the various products as I have 
seen them received in my experience. It should be pointed out, 
however, that the weight of packages contained in different ship- 
ments of the same products have been found to vary a few pounds 
either way. 

Starch 

Because starch is an important factor in the identification of 
some spices and because it serves as a guide to the identification 
of mixtures, compounds and adulterants, I have prepared photo- 
micrographs of spice and cereal starches. The examination of 
a ground spice for starch is a simple matter and can be conducted 
by any individual possessing or having access to a microscope. 
High power is not necessary, a magnification of 250 diameters 



xiv Introduction 

being required at most. The whole spice should be ground fine 
enough to pass through a mesh 74 sieve. If the ground spice as 
received for examination is not fine enough, a small sample can 
be further pounded in the mortar and sieved. A very small 
quantity of the ground spice is placed in the center of an ordi- 
nary 3-inch microscope slide. To this, one or two drops of water 
are added and a cover glass then lowered carefully in place over 
the whole. It very often helps to "rub" the sample a little and it 
is my opinion that this process is best carried out by applying 
gentle pressure with the finger to the cover glass moving it in 
a to-and-fro or circular manner while the slide is held firmly in 
the other hand. To avoid breaking the cover glass, the operation 
must be carried out with care. When the sample is sufficiently 
treated, if it should be necessary, remove the cover glass, clean 
and replace. Polarized light is not essential to the recognition 
of the starches, however, where a microscope is so fitted it per- 
mits a study of the detail which is otherwise impossible. The 
photomicrographs in this book are of subjects treated as above 
without polarized light. 

Essential Oil 

In addition to the fact that they are the basis of the flavor of 
the spices, seeds, and herbs themselves, the essential oils con- 
tained in the various parts of these aromatic plants are of tre- 
mendous commercial importance. These volatile oils are put to 
numerous uses including the manufacture of imitation spices, 
essences, medicinal preparations, perfumery and cosmetics. Many 
of them are powerful germicides, as for example, the oils of 
cloves, cinnamon and thyme. Most of the oils possess some anti- 
septic value. The properties of the various essential oils of the 
spices are given in this book together with the quantity percentage 
yielded by the plants under the most favorable conditions. As 
readers well know, the word volatile indicates that the oil vapor- 
izes of its own accord at ordinary temperatures, therefore, ground 
spices must be properly packed and kept covered to preserve their 
quality and flavor. 



Introduction xv 

Pure Food Laws 

Extracts from the pure food laws of the United States of 
America and the Dominion of Canada have been given in order 
that readers may familiarize themselves with the more important 
requirements of the respective countries. Because the economic 
interests of the two nations are closely associated and because 
many of the products of the one land find markets in the other, 
spice distributors should be informed with regard to regula- 
tions covering the standards, manufacturing, packing and sale 
of foodstuffs. Those readers who wish to obtain copies of the 
food and drug regulations may do so by applying to the respec- 
tive governments directly. 

The United States food standards given in the text are those 
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Ad- 
ministrations, Service and Regulatory Announcements, Food and 
Drug No. 2 (Fifth Revision) November, 1936, compiled under 
the Provisions of the Food and Drugs Act of 1906. This act 
has been superseded by the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic 
Act of 1938. The standards, therefore, are only used in an ad- 
visory capacity pending the adoption of new standards by the 
government under the provisions of the act of 1938. I am in- 
formed in a letter received from the Federal Security Agency, 
Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D. C, that "if 
herbs are recognized in the United States Pharmacopoeia, the 
National Formulary, or the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia, they 
must comply with the standards for purity, quality, and strength 
as set forth in these official compendia." It may be concluded 
that these remarks apply to all spices, aromatic seeds and herbs 
offered for sale in the whole or ground form to the public of 
the United States of America. 

Spice Trade Associations 

The American Spice Trade Association, now established for 
many years, came into being as the result of an earnest desire 
on the part of grinders, importers and brokers to establish among 



xvi Introduction, 

themselves a basis of trading that would be equitable to all con- 
cerned. 

Previous to its inception, there was lack of uniformity of busi- 
ness rules and no co-ordination of effort to improve qualities 
and to solve the problems raised by the Federal Pure Food Law. 
Little had been done to better the relations between importers 
and users. 

Every member may take pride in the changes which the Asso- 
ciation has brought about. Awkward, long-drawn out, costly 
disputes no longer occur. The arbitration machinery settles dif- 
ferences justly and with dispatch. 

The standard contracts clearly define responsibilities and priv- 
ileges, making buying and selling clean-cut, and as free from 
misunderstanding as possible. 

The arbitration procedure of The American Spice Trade 
Association is considered by various government bodies and com- 
mercial organizations as the most highly developed system in 
the country. It is one of the few organizations which combines 
all elements of the trade in one Association, and in this lies its 
strength. 

Mutually advantageous correspondence with foreign suppliers 
has brought about a world-wide knowledge of the standards un- 
der which the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act is enforced. 
A constant exchange of views regarding standards of purity 
and other vital matters is carried on with various chambers of 
commerce in the East. 

Nothing is so conducive to satisfactory trading, especially when 
it is of an international character, as reciprocal understanding- 
concerning ideas, customs, business methods, standards, settle- 
ment of disputes and other elements of trade. 

The Association has committees at work for the purpose of pro- 
tecting its members, stabilizing and enhancing the spice business, 
adjusting controversies and fostering friendships in the trade. 

It is constantly on the watch for state and national legislation 
or regulations affecting grinder and importer, and represents them 
before commissions and other bodies having same in charge. 



Introduction xvii 

It is educative to the grinder concerning modern cost methods 
and management, eliminating wastes and selling and manufac- 
turing.* 

The Canadian Spice Association recently formed for similar 
reasons promises to be a progressive and important factor in 
the life of the Canadian industry. They have as yet adopted no 
standard contracts although I understand the matter is in mind. 
They are at present occupied in the matter of regulating the 
industry in conformity with wartime requirements, rendering 
the fullest assistance to the Dominion government. They are 
fully aware of the needs of the industry and are considering 
plans for the present and post-war welfare of the members. 

Copies of the standard contracts of the American Spice Trade 
Association are here reproduced for the benefit of those actively 
associated with the trade. 

Distance and Time 

Where is Soerabaja? How many nautical miles distant is 
Zanzibar from New York? What time is it now in Ceylon? 
How many times these questions crop up in the spice trader's 
office and how often the answers are not available ! When trans- 
acting business with exporters abroad cables must be sent, voyage 
time must be computed along with other matters. To meet this 
need, I have compiled a list of the more important places abroad 
from where the various spice products are obtained, giving lati- 
tude and longitude, distance in nautical miles to the important 
North American seaports, and the time required to make the 
voyage. A table of difference in clock time is also included. 
Names of ports and countries are given in accordance with pre- 
war geographical knowledge. 



* Spice Manual and Directory, 1943, American Spice Trade Association, 
p. 15. 



PARTI 

Extracts from the 

Pure Food Laws 

and Regulations 

of United States of America 

and 

Dominion of Canada 



CHAPTER 1 

PURE FOOD LAWS, 

REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS 

OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

The U.S. food standards given in the text are those of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Ad- 
ministrations, Service and Regulatory Announcements, Food 
and Drug No. 2 (Fifth Revision) November, 1936 compiled 
under the provisions of the Food and Drugs Act of 1906, but 
it must be pointed out that this act has been superseded by the 
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 and the Ad- 
ministration has discontinued the distribution of Food and Drugs, 
No. 2. Many of the standards given in F. D. No. 2 have been 
superseded by . standards promulgated in connection with the 
enforcement of the act of 1938 but in the case of edible spices, 
those given in F. D. No. 2 are being used in an advisory capacity 
until standards are adopted under the present law* The standards 
given in F. D. No. 2 are "standards of identity and are not to 
be confused with standards of quality or grade." The term 
"dried" refers to the air-dried product and the term "starch" 
refers to starch as determined by the official diastase method. 

For the sake of brevity, the United States' food standards are 
referred to in the text as F. D. No. 2, U.S.A. 

Extracts From United States Food Laws and Regulations 

(U. S. A.) Federal Security Agency, Food and Drug Ad- 
ministration, Service and Regulatory Announcements, Food, 



* Correspondence, Food and Drug- Administration, Washington, D. C. 
October 1, 1943. 

3 



4 The Spice Handbook 

Drug, and Cosmetic No. 1 Revision 1, issued August, 1939, re- 
vised August, 1941. 

Definitions and Standards for Food, Chapter IV 

Page 11. "Sec. 401. Whenever in the judgment of the Ad- 
ministrator such action will promote honesty and fair dealing 
in the interest of consumers, he shall promulgate regulations fixing 
and establishing for any food, under its common or usual name 
so far as practicable, a reasonable definition and standard of 
identity, a reasonable standard of quality, and/or reasonable 
standards of fill of container. In prescribing any standard of 
fill of container, the Administrator shall give due consideration 
to the natural shrinkage in storage and in transit of fresh natural 
food and to need for the necessary packing and protective ma- 
terial. In prescribing a definition and standard of identity for 
any food or class of food in which optional ingredients are per- 
mitted, the Administrator shall, for the purpose of promoting 
honesty and fair dealing in the interest of consumers, designate 
the optional ingredients which shall be named on the label." 
Page 12. "Sec. 402. A food shall be deemed to be adulterated : 
(a) (1) If it bears or contains any poisonous or deleterious 
substance which may render it injurious to health ; but in case the 
substance is not an added substance such food shall not be con- 
sidered adulterated under this clause if the quantity of such sub- 
stance in such food does not ordinarily render it injurious to 
health; or (2) if it bears or contains any added poisonous or 
added deleterious substance which is unsafe within the meaning 
of section 406; or (3) if it consists in whole or in part of any 
filthy, putrid, or decomposed substance, or if it is otherwise unfit 
for food; or (4) if it has been prepared, packed, or held under 
insanitary conditions whereby it may have become contaminated 
with filth, or whereby it may have been rendered injurious to 
health ; or (5) if it is, in whole or in part, the product of a diseased 
animal or of an animal which has died otherwise than by slaughter ; 
or (6) if its container is composed, in whole or in part, of any 
poisonous or deleterious substance which may render the contents 
injurious to health. 



Pure Food Laws of the United States 5 

(b) (1) If any valuable constituent has been in whole or in 
part omitted or abstracted therefrom; or (2) if any substance has 
been substituted wholly or in part therefor; or (3) if damage 
or inferiority has been concealed in any manner; or (4) if any 
substance has been added thereto or mixed or packed therewith 
so as to increase its bulk or weight, or reduce its quality or 
strength, or make it appear better or of greater value than it is. 

(c) If it bears or contains a coal-tar color other than one from 
a batch that has been certified in accordance with regulations as 
provided by section 406." 

Page 12. "Sec. 403. A food shall be deemed to be misbranded : 

(a) If its labeling is false or misleading in any particular. 

(b) If it is offered for sale under the name of another food. 

(c) If it is an imitation of another food, unless its label bears, 
in type of uniform size and prominence, the word "imitation" and, 
immediately thereafter, the name of the food imitated. 

(d) If its container is so made, formed, or filled as to be mis- 
leading. 

(e) If in package form unless it bears a label containing (1) 
the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or 
distributor; and (2) an accurate statement of the quantity of 
the contents in terms of weight, measure, or numerical count: 
Provided, that under clause (2) of this paragraph reasonable 
variations shall be permitted, and exemptions as to small packages 
shall be established, by regulations prescribed by the Adminis- 
trator. 

(f) If any word, statement, or other information required 
by or under authority of this Act to appear on the label or label- 
ing is not prominently placed thereon with such conspicuousness 
(as compared with other words, statements, designs, or devices, 
in the labeling) and in such terms as to render it likely to be 
read and understood by the ordinary individual under customary 
conditions of purchase and use. 

(g) If it purports to be or is represented as a food for which 
a definition and standard of identity has been prescribed by regu- 
lations as provided by section 401, unless (1) it conforms to such 
definition and standard, and (2) its label bears the name of 



6 The Spice Handbook 

the food specified in the definition and standard, and, insofar 
as may be required by such regulations, the common names of 
optional ingredients (other than spices, flavoring, and coloring) 
present in such food.' 

Regulation Under Sec. 403 (g) of Federal Food, Drug, 
and Cosmetic Act 

By order of the Federal Security Administrator, dated July 16, 
1943, the following new regulation is added to the regulations 
for the enforcement of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic 
Act: 

Regulation. (2.13) Conformity to definitions and standards 
of identity. In the following conditions, among others, a food 
does not conform to the definition and standard of identity 
therefor : 

(a) If it contains an ingredient for which no provision is made 
in such definition and standard; 

(b) If it fails to contain any one or more ingredients required 
by such definition and standard ; 

(c) If the quantity of any ingredient or component fails to 
conform to the limitation, if any, prescribed therefor by such 
definition and standard. 

(h) If it purports to be or is represented as — 

( 1 ) a food for which a standard of quality has been prescribed 
by regulations as provided by section 401, and its quality falls 
below such standard, unless its label bears, in such manner and 
form as such regulations specify, a statement that it falls below 
such standard ; or 

(2) a food for which a standard or standards of fill of con- 
tainer have been prescribed by regulations as provided by section 
401, and it falls below the standard of fill of container applicable 
thereto, unless its label bears, in such manner and form as such 
regulations specify, a statement that it falls below such standard. 

(i) If it is not subject to the provisions of paragraph (g) of 
this section unless its label bears (1) the common or usual name 
of the food, if any there be, and (2) in case it is fabricated from 



Pure Food Laws of the United States 7 

two or more ingredients, the common or usual name of each 
such ingredient; except that spices, flavorings, and colorings, 
other than those sold as such, may be designated as spices, flav- 
orings, and colorings, without naming each: Provided, that, to 
the extent that compliance with the requirements of clause (2) 
of this paragraph is impracticable, or results in deception or un- 
fair competition, exemptions shall be established by regulations 
promulgated by the Administrator. 

(j) If it purports to be or is represented for special dietary 
uses, unless its label bears such information concerning its vita- 
min, mineral, and other dietary properties as the Administrator 
determines to be, and by regulations prescribes as, necessary in 
order fully to inform purchasers as to its value for such uses. 

(k) If it bears or contains any artificial flavoring, artificial 
coloring, or chemical preservative, unless it bears labeling stating 
that fact : Provided, that to the extent that compliance with the 
requirements of this paragraph is impracticable, exemptions shall 
be established by regulations promulgated by the Administrator. 
The provisions of this paragraph and paragraphs (g) and (i) 
with respect to artificial coloring shall not apply in the case of 
butter, cheese, or ice cream." 

Tolerances for Poisonous Ingredients in Food and Certification 
of Coal-Tar Colors for Food 

Page 19. "Sec. 406. (a) Any poisonous or deleterious substance 
added to any food, except where such substance is required in 
the production thereof or cannot be avoided by good manufactur- 
ing practice shall be deemed to be unsafe for purposes of the 
application of clause (2) of section 402 (a) ; but when such sub- 
stance is so required or cannot be so avoided, the Administrator 
shall promulgate regulations limiting the quantity therein or 
thereon to such extent as he finds necessary for the protection of 
public health, and any quantity exceeding the limits so fixed 
shall also be deemed to be unsafe for purposes of the application 
of clause (2) of section 402 (a). While such a regulation is in 
effect limiting the quantity of any such substance in the case of 



8 The Spice Handbook 

any food, such food shall not, by reason of bearing or containing 
any added amount of such substance, be considered to be adulter- 
ated within the meaning of clause (1) of section 402 (a). In 
determining the quantity of such added substance to be tolerated 
in or on different articles of food the Administrator shall take 
into account the extent to which the use of such substance is re- 
quired or cannot be avoided in the production of each such article, 
and the other ways in which the consumer may be affected by the 
same or other poisonous or deleterious substances. 

(b) The Administrator shall promulgate regulations provid- 
ing for the listing of coal-tar colors which are harmless and 
suitable for use in food and for the certification of batches of 
such colors, with or without harmless diluents." 

Imports and Exports, Chapter VIII 

Page 42. "Sec. 801. (a) The Secretary of the Treasury shall 
deliver to the Federal Security Administrator, upon his request, 
samples of food, drugs, devices, and cosmetics which are being 
imported or offered for import into the United States, giving 
notice thereof to the owner or consignee, who may appear before 
the Federal Security Administrator and have the right to intro- 
duce testimony. If it appears from the examination of such 
samples or otherwise that (1) such article has been manufac- 
tured, processed, or packed under insanitary conditions, or (2) 
such article is forbidden or restricted in sale in the country in 
which it was produced or from which it was exported, or (3) 
such article is adulterated, misbranded, or in violation of section 
505, then such article shall be refused admission. This paragraph 
shall not be construed to prohibit the admission of narcotic drugs 
the importation of which is permitted under section 2 of the Act 
of May 26, 1922, as amended (U.S.C., 1934 edition, title 21, 
sec. 173). 

(b) The Secretary of the Treasury shall refuse delivery to the 
consignee and shall cause the destruction of any such article re- 
fused admission, unless such article is exported by the consignee 
within three months from the date of notice of such refusal. 



Pure Food Laws of the United States 9 

under such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury may 
prescribe : Provided, that the Secretary of the Treasury may de- 
liver to the consignee any such article pending examination and 
decision in the matter on execution of a bond as liquidated dam- 
ages for the amount of the full invoice value thereof together 
with the duty thereon and on refusing for any cause to return 
such article or any part thereof to the custody of the Secretary 
of the Treasury when demanded for the purpose of excluding it 
from the country or for any other purpose, such consignee shall 
forfeit the full amount of the bond as liquidated damages." 

Page 49. "(c) All charges for storage, cartage, and labor on 
any article which is refused admission or delivery shall be paid 
by the owner or consignee and in default of such payment shall 
constitute a lien against any future importations made by such 
owner or consignee. 

(d) A food, drug, device, or cosmetic intended for export 
shall not be deemed to be adulterated or misbranded under this 
Act if it (1) accords to the specifications of the foreign purchaser, 
(2) is not in conflict with the laws of the country to which it is 
intended for export, and (3) is labeled on the outside of the 
shipping package to show that it is intended for export. But if 
such article is sold or offered for sale in domestic commerce, 
this subsection shall not exempt it from any of the provisions 
of this Act." 



CHAPTER 2 

PURE FOOD LAWS, REGULATIONS AND 

STANDARDS OF THE DOMINION OF 

CANADA 

The Canadian food standards given in the text are extracts 
from the Office Consolidation of the Regulations under the Food 
and Drugs Act, made by Order in Council: 6th October, 1942, 
P.C. 9056 and the following amending Order in Council: 3rd 
December, 1942, P.C. 10993, Department of Pensions and Na- 
tional Health, Ottawa, Canada. 

For the sake of brevity, the Dominion of Canada food stand- 
ards are referred to in the text as F. D. Canada. 

Extracts From Canadian Food Laws and Regulations 

(Canada) Office Consolidation of the Regulations under the 
Food and Drugs Act, Department of Pensions and National 
Health, Ottawa, Dominion of Canada, 1942. 

Page 10. "Sec. VI. Limits of Variability of Net Contents. 

The following variations from the quantity of the contents 
marked on the package shall be allowed except in cases where it 
is stated in terms of minimum weight, measure or count. 

(i) Discrepancies due exclusively to errors in weighing, meas- 
uring or counting which occur in packing conducted in compliance 
with good commercial practice. 

(ii) Discrepancies due exclusively to differences in the capacity 
of bottles and similar containers resulting solely from unavoidable 
difficulties in manufacturing such bottles or containers so as to 
be of uniform capacity: provided that no greater tolerance shall 
be allowed, in case of bottles or similar containers which, be- 

10 



Pure Food Laws of Canada 11 

cause of their design, cannot be made of approximate uniform 
capacity than is allowed in case of bottles or similar containers 
which can be manufactured so as to be of approximate uniform 
capacity. 

(iii) Discrepancies in weight or measure, due exclusively to 
differences in atmospheric conditions in various places, and which 
unavoidably result from the ordinary and customary exposure 
of the packages to evaporation or to the absorption of water. 

Discrepancies under clauses (i) and (ii) of this section shall 
be as often above as below the marked quantity. The reason- 
ableness of discrepancies under paragraph (iii) of this section 
shall be determined on the facts in each case." 

Page 11. "Sec. VIII. Disposal of Import Shipments of Food 
or Drugs Refused Entry under Section 10 of the Act. 

1. A certificate of analysis in appropriate form shall be sent 
to the Collector of National Revenue refusing entry under sub- 
section 3 of section 10 of the Act. 

2. The importer, where known, shall also receive due notice 
of the refusal of entry. 

3. Any shipment of food or drug which has been refused 
Customs entry under authority of section 10 of the Act shall be 
held in Customs bond until arrangements for disposal have been 
completed. 

4. If the goods are unclaimed, or refused to or by the importer, 
they shall be exported within three months of the date of refusal 
of entry, or they shall ipso facto be forfeited to the Crown, and 
may be disposed of as the Minister directs. 

5. Goods may be released from Customs bond after compliance 
with certain conditions specified in writing and accepted by the 
consignee in each case. If the release is conditional upon the 
destruction of any portion of the shipment, the rest of the goods 
shall be held until this is done. If the goods are not properly con- 
ditioned within the period allowed, they shall be exported or 
destroyed. 

6. The privilege of relabelling, cleaning or similarly renovating 
may be refused, if the importer, shipper, furnisher or manu- 



12 The Spice Handbook 

facturer has been informed of the statutory violations in previous 
shipments. 

7. When importations are shipped to another port for recondi- 
tioning or exportation, the goods shall be shipped under Customs 
carrier's manifest as a shipment in bond." 

Page 12. "Division 1. Section I. 

Labelling, Packaging, Advertising and Selling. 

Part A. Foods and Drugs 

1. Every article of food or drug in package form, sealed or 
put up by the manufacturer or producer thereof, shall be labelled. 

2. The label may be an integral part of the package. 

3. Foods and drugs with comon names shall be so designated 
in one or other or both of the official languages provided that 
no such name may be a combination of words taken directly from 
more than one language. 

4. The common name of the article above referred to shall ap- 
pear on the main panel of the main label. 

5. In labelling, the name and address of the manufacturer or 
that of the person for whom the article is manufactured shall 
appear clearly and conspicuously with a statement as to whether 
such name is that of the manufacturer, the distributor or the person 
by whom the package is put up. 

7. Lables and advertisements shall not make any reference 
either direct or indirect to the Act or to these regulations, unless 
such reference is a specific requirement of these regulations. 

Part B. Foods 

1. If the name of an ingredient is used in naming a com- 
pound or mixture, such ingredient shall constitute not less than 
fifty-one (51) per cent of the whole. 

2. When the article is sold as a compound, a mixture, a sub- 
stitute or an imitation, the appropriate word selected from these 
words shall appear on the main panel of the main label in type 
of the same size and visibility as the common name used, and 
as part of the same, and unless it be a compound or a mixture the 



Regulations and Standards of Canada 13 

list of ingredients shall also be stated clearly and conspicuously. 

3. In labelling any food product for which a distinctive name 
is used, the list of ingredients shall be stated clearly and con- 
spicuously. 

4. A distinctive name shall not give any false indication of 
origin, character, or place of manufacture, nor shall it lead the 
purchaser to suppose that it is any other food product. 

5. When colour, or preservative, which requires label declara- 
tion or when artificial flavour is present, the appropriate declara- 
tion shall be made on the main panel of the main label in easily 
legible type with observance of any details specified elsewhere 
herein. 

6. If any substitute for sugar which requires label declaration 
is used, the presence of such substitute shall be declared by name 
on the main panel of the main label in easily legible type. 

7. Containers and wrappers in contact with food products 
shall not contain on their surfaces in contact with food products 
any lead, antimony, arsenic, zinc or copper, or any compounds 
thereof or any other poisonous or injurious substances. If the 
containers are made of tin plate, they shall be outside soldered, 
or if soldered inside, the solder used shall consist of pure tin 
only; and the plate in no place shall contain less than one hundred 
and thirteen (113) milligrams of tin on a piece five (5) centi- 
meters square or one and eight-tenths (1.8) grains on a piece 
two (2) inches square. 

This is equivalent to two (2) pounds of tin per base box; but 
it must be noted that the regulation requires not only a minimum 
weight of tin per base box, but that this tin shall be evenly dis- 
tributed over the surface of the plate. 

The inner coating of the containers shall be free of pin holes, 
blisters and cracks. 

If the tin plate is lacquered, the lacquer shall completely cover 
the lined surface within the container and yield to the contents 
of the container no lead, antimony, arsenic, zinc or copper, or 
any compounds thereof, or any other poisonous or injurious 
substances. 



14 The Spice Handbook 

Office Consolidation of Food and Drugs Act, Chapter 76 of 
the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1927 , as Amended by Chapters 23 
and 30 of the Statutes of 1930 and by Chapter 54 of the Statutes 
of 1934. 

Adulteration 

4. Food shall be deemed to be adulterated within the meaning 
of this Act, 

(a) if any substance has been mixed with it so as to reduce 
or lower or injuriously affect its quality or strength ; 

(b) if any inferior or cheaper substance has been substituted 
wholly or in part for the article; 

(c) if any valuable constituent of the article has been wholly 
or in part abstracted; 

(d) if it consists wholly or in part of any diseased or putrid 
or rotten animal or vegetable substance, whether manu- 
factured or not ; 

(e) if it is obtained from a diseased animal, or from an animal 
fed upon unwholesome food; 

(f) if it contains any added poisonous ingredient, or any in- 
gredient which may render it injurious to the health of 
the person consuming it, whether added with intent or 
otherwise; or 

(g) if its strength or purity falls below the standard, or its 
constituents are present in quantity not within the limits 
of variability fixed by the Governor in Council as here- 
inafter provided. 1920, c. 27, s. 3. 

Misbranding 

7. Food or drug shall be deemed to be misbranded within the 
meaning of this Act, 

(a) if it is an imitation of, or substitute for, or resembles 
in a manner likely to deceive, another article of food or 
drug under the name of which it is sold or offered or ex- 
posed for sale and is not plainly and conspicuously labelled 
so as to indicate its true character; 



Regulations and Standards of Canada 15 

(b) if it is stated to be the product of a place or a country 
of which it is not truly a product ; 

(c) if it is sold or offered for sale by a name which belongs 
to another article; 

(d) if it is so coloured or coated, powdered or polished that 
damage is concealed, or if it is made to appear better or of 
greater value than it really is ; 

(e) if false or exaggerated claims are made for it upon the label 
or otherwise ; 

(f) if in package form, sealed by or put up by the manu- 
facturer or producer, and bearing his name and address, 
the contents of each package are not conspicuously and 
correctly stated within limits of variability to be fixed 
by regulations as in this Act provided, in terms of weight, 
measure or number, upon the outside of the package; 
provided that this paragraph shall not apply to packages 
the weight of which including the package and contents 
is under two ounces; and that nothing in this section 
shall be taken to require the statement of weight, measure, 
or number upon containers or packages of standard size 
as provided by orders of the Governor in Council under 
the Meat and Canned Foods Act ; 

(g) if it is not labelled in accordance with the requirements 
of this Act; 

(h) if the package containing it, or the label on the package, 
bears any statement, design or device regarding the in- 
gredients or the substances contained therein, which state- 
ment, design or device is false or misleading in any 
particular ; or if the package is deceptive with respect to 
design ; construction or fill ; or 

(i) if the package containing it, or the label on the package, 
bears the name of an individual or of a company, claimed 
to be the manufacturer or producer of the article, which 
individual or company is fictitious or non-existent. 1920, 
c. 27, s. 5 ; 1927, c. 56, ss. 3 and 4. 

8. Every article of food which is a compound, mixture, imita- 
tion or substitute shall be plainly and correctly labelled as such. 



16 The Spice Handbook 

2. The words 'pure' or 'genuine' or words equivalent to these 
terms, shall not be used on the labels or in connection with such 
articles. 

3. Such articles shall be so packed, marked or labelled as not 
to be likely to deceive any person with respect to their true nature. 
1920, c. 27, s. 6." 



PART 2 
Spices 



Allspice 



19 




Jamaica Allspia 




Jamaica Allspice x 7 

Showing Oil Cells 



20 



The Spice Handbook 




Jamaica Allspice x 7y 2 
Note Calyx Remains and Oil Cells 



CHAPTER 3 

ALLSPICE 

Also Known as Pimento, Jamaica Pimento, Jamaica Pepper 

Plant: Pimenta officinalis Lindl. 

Family: Myrtaceae. 

Nativity and Cultivation: Native to West Indies and tropical 
America and abundantly cultivated in the West Indies. All- 
spice is also cultivated for export in Mexico but the Mexican 
product is larger than the Jamaica allspice berry and inferior 
in quality. In the United States, the Mexican berry must be 
described as Mexican allspice and not simply allspice. The 
properties of allspice given below refer only to the product of 
Jamaica. 

Description: An evergreen tree of the myrtle family growing 
25 to 30 feet high. The berries are picked when mature, but 
still green, and are sun-dried for six to ten days. The color 
of the berry changes during drying to a dark reddish-brown. 

Properties of Jamaica Allspice: Color: Dark reddish-brown. 
Size and Shape: Varies in size from 3/16 to 1/4 of an inch 
in diameter. Shape, nearly globular. 

Appearance : Dried, hard berry with rough surface due to 
numerous small protuberant oil cells which are clearly visible 
when the dried fruit is viewed under the low power of the 
microscope. Remains of style and calyx quite prominent. 
Eiach berry contains two deep brown, reniform seeds, sepa- 
rated by a very thin membrane. 

Aroma and Taste: Fragrant, clove-like odor and a clove-like, 
strongly aromatic, pungent taste. The flavor is decidedly con- 
tained in the pericarp ; the seeds themselves are not nearly as 

21 



22 The Spice Handbook 

aromatic nor as pungent. The seeds have a very slight nutty 
flavor. 
Allspice is available whole or ground. 

There are approximately 365 whole allspice to one ounce and 
approximately 5,840 to one pound. 

The name allspice is given to the dried, unripe fruit because 
its flavor is said to resemble a combination of the spices cinnamon, 
nutmeg and cloves. 

Exports of allspice from Jamaica for the year 1939 amounted 
to 8,044,544 pounds valued at £ 207,073 f.o.b. Due to the war, 
the exports of allspice fell off considerably as the following figures 
for 1941-42 show : 

1941—3,246,994 lb. valued at £ 151,662 f.o.b. 
1942—3,978,072 lb. valued at £ 379,633 f.o.b.* 
Uses : Allspice finds extensive use in the culinary art as a flavoring 
agent for meats, gravies, relishes, fish dishes, pies, puddings, 
preserves, etc. It is employed in the manufacture of many 
commercial foodstuffs including meat sauces, catsup, pickles 
and fancy meats. It is an important ingredient of whole 
mixed pickling spice, and of many ground spice formulae, 
e.g., curry powder, mincemeat spice, pastry spice, and poultry 
dressing; frankfurter, Bologna, hamburger, and pork sau- 
sage seasonings. 
Adulteration: Whole allspice does not lend itself easily to 
adulteration but ground allspice is sometimes found adulter- 
ated with clove stems, farinaceous and dried fruit products. 
Grinding : Allspice should be ground fine enough to pass through 

a mesh 38 to 48 screen. 
Packing: Allspice is exported from Jamaica in jute bags of 150 

pounds average gross weight. 
Starch: Allspice contains a small percentage of starch. The 

granules are small, uniform and nearly circular. 
Essential Oil: Allspice yields 3 to 4.5% of volatile oil having 
the following properties : ** 



* Correspondence, Dept. of Science and Agriculture, Jamaica, Oct. 1943. 
** The Chemists Year Book, 1944, Altrincham, England, Sherratt and Hughes. 



Allspice 



23 



Specific gravity at 15°C. : 1.025-1.055 
Optical rotation at 20°C. : to -5° 
Refractive index at 25°C: 1.525-1.535 
Principal constituent: Eugenol (60-80%) 
Solubility: 1 part in 2 parts of 70% alcohol. 
Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U.S.A. "Allspice, Pimento. The dried, nearly 
ripe fruit of Pimenta officinalis Lindl. It contains not less 
than 8 per cent of quercitannic acid (calculated from the total 
oxygen absorbed by the aqueous extract), not more than 
25 per cent of crude fiber, not more than 6 per cent of total 
ash, nor more than 0.4 per cent of ash insoluble in hydro- 
chloric acid." 




Allspice Starch x 250 



CHAPTER 4 

CINNAMON 

Ceylon Cinnamon 

Plant: Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. 

Family: Lauraceae. 

Nativity and Cultivation: Native to Ceylon and the Malabar 

coast of India and cultivated in Ceylon. 
Description: The cultivated tree is small and bushy with leathery, 

bright green, aromatic leaves. It is an evergreen belonging 

to the laurel family. 




s3H»-s*vS 



Ceylon Cinnamon Quills 
Grade "0000" 

Properties of Ceylon Cinnamon: Compound Quills, Grade 
"0000" : Color: Yellowish-brown. 

Size and Shape: From 36 to 42 inches long and approxi- 
mately ^ of an inch in diameter. Shape, cylindrical, com- 
pound quills. 

Appearance : Smooth, thin, rolled bark with occasional scars. 
Fine, light-colored, wavy lines run lengthwise and are clearly 
visible. 

Aroma and Taste: A pleasing, fragrant odor and a warm, 
sweet, aromatic taste. 

24 



Cinnamon 25 



Ceylon Cinnamon Quills 



The production of cinnamon is an industry not so important 
to the island of Ceylon today as it was many years ago when the 
Portuguese went East in search of spices but it is, nevertheless, 
cultivated on scientific lines and is of importance, although in a 
lesser degree. 

Many years ago, cinnamon gardens were in and around Co- 
lombo but, as the municipality spread, it was cultivated mainly 
in the southern part of the island, that is, between Colombo and 
Galle. Plantations are almost entirely in the hands of natives, 
and the cinnamon is brought by firms interested in the bark from 
native dealers in the Colombo market. 

The production of cinnamon is seasonal and affected by the 
monsoons, especially the south-west monsoon, which commences 
the end of May and normally proceeds until August. It is after 
the monsoon, when the heavy rains have fallen, that cinnamon 
is most prolific and it is necessary to have rain so that it can be 
rolled and prepared.* 

Ceylon cinnamon inner bark is obtained from carefully selected 
shoots. Skilled peelers introduce the smaller rolls of bark into 
the larger rolls and then connect the compound pieces endwise 
to form the quills of commerce. 

Ceylon cinnamon quills are graded according to color, quality, 
size and thickness of the bark. The various grades are identified 
by a series of zeros and numbers as follows : 

"0000" "000" "00" "0" lsts 2nds 3rds 4ths 
the first mentioned grade being the finest and proceeding down 
the list to the fourths which, although rolled into quills, are some- 
what rough. 

In 1938 Ceylon exported approximately 2000 long tons of 
quills and approximately 350 long tons of chips. 



* Communication of J. H. Vavasseur and Co., Ltd., Ceylon House, London, 
England. 



26 The Spice Handbook 

Ceylon Cinnamon Quillings 

Quillings are broken pieces of compound cinnamon quills of 
various grades. The pieces vary considerably in size, being about 
2 to 6 or 8 inches in length and about % to 1 inch in diameter. 
Many of the quillings are completely broken down resulting in 
many pieces of inner and outer quills being freely strewn in the 
bale. 







Ceylon Cinnamon Quillings 

For color and description of properties they may be compared 
with the sound Ceylon cinnamon quills except, of course, that 
pieces of all grades are found in any bale of quillings. 




Ceyl 



on Cinnamon Featherings 



Cinnamon 27 

Ceylon Cinnamon Featherings 

Featherings are short shavings and small pieces of bark left 
over in the processing of the inner bark into quills, although 
many pieces of bark found in any sample of featherings would 
look more at home amongst Ceylon ships. 

Collectively, featherings present a shade darker color than the 
quills and a shade lighter than the chips. Featherings possess a 
1 etter and fuller flavor than the chips. 




Ceylon Cinnamon Starch x 250 

Ceylon Cinnamon Chips 

In the preparation of the inner bark which constitutes the 
cinnamon quills of commerce, the shoots from which the bark 
is obtained must be first carefully and thoroughly trimmed. The 
small pieces resulting from this process are not wasted but dried, 
baled, and sold as cinnamon chips. 

The chips are, collectively, much darker in color than the inner 
bark of Ceylon cinnamon quills. An examination of individual 
pieces shows this coarse outer bark to be a grayish-brown on the 
outside and a light brown on the inside. Ceylon chips being 



28 The Spice Handbook 

deficient in both aroma and taste are not to be compared with 
the quills for flavor. 




Ceylon Cinnamon Chips 

Uses: Ceylon cinnamon is employed for the flavoring of buns, 
cakes, pies, puddings, toast, etc. It is always in demand by 
the bakery trade. 

Adulteration: Common adulterants of ground Ceylon cinnamon 
are ground fruit and nut shells, sugar, farinaceous and dried 
fruit products. 

Grinding: Ceylon cinnamon should be cracked and ground fine 
enough to pass through a mesh 74 to 86 screen. The resultant 
powder is very fragrant and yellowish-brown in color. 

Packing: Ceylon cinnamon quills are packed in cases or bales 
averaging 100 pounds net weight. Ceylon quillings are 
packed in bales averaging 95 2 /$ pounds each. Ceylon feather- 
ings are packed in bales averaging 99 pounds each. Ceylon 
cinnamon chips are packed in bales weighing 280 pounds 
net, and also in bales averaging 222 pounds net. 

Starch: Ceylon cinnamon bark contains starch similar to that 
found in cassia but smaller size. Two to four granules are 
often joined. 

Essential Oil: Cinnamon bark yields 0.5 to 1% of volatile oil 
having the following properties :* 



* The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22). 



Cinnamon 29 

Specific gravity at 15°C: 0.943-1.040 
Optical rotation at 20°G: to —3° 
Refractive index at 25°C: 1.528-1.591 
Principal constituent: Cinnamic aldehyde (55-75%) 
Solubility: 1 part in 3 parts of 70% alcohol. 
Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U.S.A. "CEYLON CINNAMON. The dried 
inner bark of cultivated varieties of Cinnamomum zeylanicum 
Nees." 



CHAPTER 5 
CASSIA 

China CassiA 

Plant: Cinnamomum Cassia Blume. 

Family: Lauraceae. 

Nativity and Cultivation: Native to China and Burma and 
cultivated in South China. 

Description: An evergreen tree belonging to the laurel family. 

Properties of China Cassia: Color: Reddish-brown. 

Size and Shape: Thickness of bark approximately 1/64 to 
1/16 of an inch, diameter of quills from about }i to ^4 of 
an inch and length of quills from about 12 to 24 inches. 
Appearance: Bark thicker and coarser than that of Ceylon 
cinnamon. Frequent patches of rough, grayish cork. 
Aroma and Taste: An agreeable odor, less fragrant than 
that of Ceylon cinnamon and a sweet, aromatic, pungent, 
somewhat astringent taste. 
China cassia is available whole, broken or ground. Broken 

China cassia consists of the small pieces of bark resulting from 

the trimming, sorting, handling and packing of the quills. It is 

exported as select broken or extra broken cassia, according to 

quality and appearance. 

Saigon Cassia 

Plant: Cinnamomum Loureirii Nees.* 
Family: Lauraceae. 

Nativity and Cultivation: Native to China and cultivated in 
French Indo-China. 



* According to U. S. Dispensatory, 23rd Ed., p. 321. Note that F. D. No. 2, 
U. S. A. says Saigon cassia is the bark of cultivated varieties of Cinnamomum 
cassia (L.) Blume. 

30 



Cassia 



31 




Saigon Cassia 

(Medium and thin bark) 

Properties of Saigon Cassia: Color: Grayish-brown. 

Size and Shape: The size of the quills and the thickness of 
the bark vary considerably, being from 6 to 12 inches in 
length, }i to \]/ 2 inches in diameter and 1/32 to ^4 of an inch 
in thickness. Shape, double and single quills. 




Saigon Cassia 

An example of very thick bark, actual width at narrow end 1 5/16 inches, 

thickness 1/4 inch 

Appearance: The thin bark is slightly rough and shows 
longitudinal wavy ridges, scars marking former branch 
joints and numerous wart-like protuberances. The thick bark 
is grayer than the thin and very rough with no wavy ridges. 



32 The Spice Handbook 




Saigon Cassia Starch x 250 

Aroma and Taste: An agreeable, aromatic odor and a very 
aromatic, pungent, sweet, slightly astringent taste. Saigon 
cassia has an excellent flavor. 
Saigon cassia quills are graded according to the thickness of 
the bark: Thin, medium or thick. 

Saigon cassia is available whole, broken or ground. Broken 
Saigon cassia consists of the small pieces of bark resulting from 
the trimming, sorting, handling and packing of the quills. It is 
graded No. 1 or No. 2 according to quality and appearance. 

Batavia Cassia 

Plant: There seems to be some doubt about the species to which 
Batavia cassia belongs. It is probably derived from Cinna- 
momum Burmanni Blume. 

Nativity and Cultivation: Probably native to the islands com- 
prising the Dutch East Indies and cultivated in the Dutch 
East Indies. 

Properties of Batavia Cassia: Color: Reddish-brown. 

Size and Shape: The bark varies in thickness from 1/32 to 
3/16 of an inch. The quills are about J4 an inch in diameter 



Cassia 



33 



Batavia Cassia 



and of various lengths. Samples examined were from 6 to 
18 inches long. Shape, double quills. 

Appearance: The bark is comparatively smooth. The quills 
of high grade Batavia cassia are of good appearance, straight 
and regular. The quills of inferior grades may be twisted 
and irregular. Scars marking former branch joints are 
seen but no wavy lines or ridges. 

Aroma and Taste: An agreeable, aromatic odor and a sweet, 
pungent taste. 
Batavia cassia quills are graded according to length, color and 

thickness of bark as follows : Fancy long stick, regular long stick, 

short stick. 

Batavia cassia is available whole, broken, or ground. 

Broken Batavia cassia consists of the small pieces of bark 

resulting from the trimming, sorting, handling and packing of 

the quills. It is graded No. 1 or No. 2, according to quality and 

appearance. 



34 The Spice Handbook 

Uses, Etc., of China, Saigon and Batavia Cassia 

Uses : The culinary uses for cassia include the flavoring of buns, 
cakes, pies, puddings, toast, etc. It is employed in the com- 
mercial manufacture of many foodstuffs and is in demand 
by bakers, confectioners, fruit canners and other food proc- 
essors. Cracked cassia is an ingredient of whole mixed 
pickling spice. Cassia is a constituent of many ground spice 
formulae including pastry spice and mincemeat spice. It is 
included in some formulae for curry powder. 

Adulteration : Unlike Ceylon cinnamon, there is wide opportunity 
for adulteration abroad by substitution with inferior qualities 
when bundling the various kinds of cassia. Such substitution 
is not easily detected and it would appear that there is little 
that the spice merchant can do other than confine his trading 
to exporters of sound reputation. Common adulterants of 
ground cassia are ground fruit stones and nut shells, fari- 
naceous products, sugar, etc. 

Grinding": China, Saigon and Batavia cassia should be cracked 
and ground fine enough to pass through a mesh 74 to 86 
screen. China cassia when ground is light reddish-brown ; 
Saigon cassia, thin bark, is a light brown and the thick bark 
is a dark, somewhat grayish, brown; Batavia cassia, thin 
bark, is a light, somewhat yellowish, brown and the medium 
thick bark is a shade darker in color. 

Packing: China cassia is packed in bales of 66 2 /z and 112 pounds 
and broken China cassia in bales of 112 and 140 pounds 
net. Saigon cassia is packed in bales of 66 2 /z and 133^ 
pounds and broken Saigon cassia in bales averaging 133 
pounds net. Batavia cassia is packed in bales of 117 and 
130 pounds. 

Starch: All varieties of cassia contain starch. The granules are 
small and truncated at one end and they have a tendency 
to join in groups of two to four. 

Essential Oil: Cassia yields from 0.5 to 2% of volatile oil having 
the following properties :* 
* The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22). 



Cassia 35 

Specific gravity at 15°C: 1.055-1.072 
Optical rotation at 20°C. : +6 to — 1° 
Refractive index at 20°C. : 1.585-1.606 
Principal constituent: Cinnamic aldehyde (75-90%) 
Solubility : 1 part in 2 parts of 80% alcohol. 
Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U.S.A. "CINNAMON. The dried bark of 
cultivated varieties of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees or of 
C. cassia (L.) Blume, from which the outer layers may or 
may not have been removed. CEYLON CINNAMON. The 
dried inner bark of cultivated varieties of Cinnamomum 
zeylanicum Nees. SAIGON CINNAMON, CASSIA. The 
dried bark of cultivated varieties of Cinnamomum cassia 
(L.) Blume. GROUND CINNAMON, GROUND 
CASSIA. The powder made from cinnamon. It contains not 
more than 5 per cent of total ash, nor more than 2 per cent 
of ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid." 



Cassia Buds 

Cassia buds are the dried, unripe fruits of Cinnamomum cassia 

and Cinnamomum Loureirii. 

Properties of Cassia Buds: Color: Grayish-brown. 

Size and Shape: Cassia buds vary from about ^ to Yz an 
inch in length, the width at crown is about 3/16 of an inch. 
The calyx without the seed is cup-like or could be likened 
to a wine glass including stem but not the bottom. 
Appearance: The bud consists of a brown seed snugly secure 
within the calyx. The seed is quite smooth with only part 
of its upper surface visible. The calyx is wrinkled and very 
hard. 

Aroma and Taste: Slight cinnamon-like odor and a sweet, 
warm, pungent taste akin to cassia bark. 
There are approximately 400 complete, whole buds in one 

ounce and approximately 6,400 to one pound. 



36 



The Spice Handbook 



Packing: Cassia buds are packed in wooden cases weighing ap- 
proximately 66 to 67 pounds net. 




Cassia Buds 



CHAPTER 6 

CLOVES 

Plant: Caryophyllus aromaticus L. 

Family: Myrtaceae. 

Nativity and Cultivation: Probably native to the Moluccas, or 

Spice Islands, an archipelago of the Dutch East Indies. 

Cultivated in Amboyna, Zanzibar, Madagascar, Pemba, 

Penang, Ceylon, India and British Malaya. 




Clove Stems 

Description: An evergreen tree from 20 to 40 feet or more in 
height. The general habit of growth of the tree is markedly 
erect. "The flowers are produced in either or both of two 
seasons July to October and November to January. They 

37 



38 The Spice Handbook 




Cloves 

are borne in bunches of varying number at the ends of the 
twigs. The clove of commerce is the unopened bud. It is 
picked by hand when the base of the bud turns red. If left 
unpicked, the small petals open and expose a large number 
of stamens and a very small style. After fertilization, the 
inferior ovary swells to form a large purple drupe usually 
containing one seed. The fruit is about 1 inch in length 
and Yz an inch in breadth. This is called mother of cloves." * 
Properties of Dried Cloves: Color: Reddish-brown. 

Size and Shape: From J/2 to ^4 of an inch in length. In 
shape, the clove resembles a round-headed nail (the word 
clove is derived from the French "clou," a nail, and Latin 
clavus nail). 

Appearance : The stem-like calyx is complete with its crown. 
Four points project immediately beneath the round head, 
or crown. Bold, plump, somewhat rough to the touch but not 
wrinkled or shrivelled. When pressure is applied to the calyx- 
tube with the finger nail, a small amount of oil is exuded. 



* Correspondence, Dept. of Agriculture, Zanzibar, Fast Africa, Nov. 1943. 



Cloves 39 

Aroma and Taste: A very strong aromatic odor, and a hot, 

pungent, aromatic taste. 

"The unopened clove buds are removed by pickers who climb 

the trees and gather the whole bunches. The cloves are removed 

from the bunches later by hand, the stripped bunches being the 

clove stems of commerce. 

The cloves are then dried either on grass mats or cement drying 
floors for four or five days until quite dry and brittle. 

Under bad drying and storage conditions, the color becomes 
darker and the sample becomes rather musty. Finally the epidermis 
becomes pale and wrinkled and cloves of this type are known 
as Khoker." * 

Penang and Amboyna cloves are generally considered superior 
but Zanzibar and Madagascar cloves are also of excellent quality 
and flavor. 

"Pemba cloves are now similar in all respects to the Zanzibar 
cloves and all exports from Pemba to Zanzibar are inspected 
in Pemba. Previously the Pemba cloves were regarded as some- 
what inferior." * 

There are approximately 252 to 420 whole cloves to one ounce 
and approximately 4,032 to 6,720 to one pound, according to 
source and quality. 

Grading: Cloves are graded according to appearance and im- 
purities present. Zanzibar cloves are graded special, No. 1, 
No. 2, and No. 3 as follows : 

Special grade: Extraneous matter (i.e. stems, mother of 
cloves, foreign and inferior matter), 3% 
Khoker, 2% 
Moisture, 16% 
Grade 1 : Extraneous matter, 5% 

Khoker, 3% 
Moisture, 16% 
Grade 2: Extraneous matter, 5% 

Khoker, 7% 
Moisture, 16% 
* Correspondence, Dept. of Agriculture, Zanzibar, East Africa, Nov. 1943. 



40 The Spice Handbook 

Grade 3 : Extraneous matter, 5 % 

Khoker, 20% 
Moisture, 16% 

Uses: One of the most widely used culinary spices for flavoring 
roasts, hams, stews, preserves, cakes, puddings, pickles, etc., 
and an important flavoring ingredient of many commercially 
prepared foodstuffs. A constituent of numerous spice 
formulae, e.g., pickling spice, mincemeat spice, pastry spice, 
poultry dressing, sausage seasoning and hamburger season- 
ing. 

Adulteration : Whole cloves are sometimes adulterated by the in- 
clusion of excess clove stems, exhausted cloves and withered 
cloves. Common adulterants of ground cloves are clove 
stems, farinaceous products, cereal starches and ground fruit 
stones. 

Grinding: Cloves should be ground fine enough to pass through 
a mesh 38 to 48 screen. 

Packing: Cloves are packed in bales of 140 to 148 pounds net. 

Starch : Cloves contain no starch. ( Mother cloves contain a small 
quantity of starch.) 

Essential Oil: Cloves yield from 14 to 21% of volatile oil having 
the following properties : * 
Specific gravity at 15°C: 1.044-1.069 
Optical rotation at 20 °C. : to -2° 
Refractive index at 25°C: 1.528-1.540 
Principal constituent: Eugenol (80-95%) 
Solubility: 1 part in 1-3 parts of 70% alcohol. 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. "Cloves shall be the 
dried flower buds of Caryophyllus aromaticus L., and shall 
not contain more than five (5) per cent of clove stems, 
more than eight (8) per cent of total ash, more than five- 
tenths of one (0.5) per cent of ash insoluble in hydrochloric 
acid, more than ten (10) per cent of crude fiber and shall 
contain not less than fifteen (15) per cent of volatile ether 



* The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22). 



Cloves 41 

extract." F. D. No. 2, U.S.A. "CLOVES. The dried 
flower buds of Caryophyllus aromaticus L. They contain not 
more than 5 per cent of clove stems, not less than 15 per 
cent of volatile ether extract, not less than 12 per cent of 
quercitannic acid (calculated from the total oxygen absorbed 
by the aqueous extract), not more than 7 per cent of total 
ash, nor more than 0.5 per cent of ash insoluble in hydro- 
chloric acid." 



CHAPTER 7 

GINGER 

Plant: Zingiber officinale Roscoe. 

Family: Zingiberaceae. 

Nativity and Cultivation : Native to tropical Asia and cultivated 

in the West Indies, India, Africa, China, Japan, and Dutch 

East Indies. 




Cochin Ginger 

Description: A perennial herbaceous plant of the ginger family. 
Ginger, or root ginger, is the name given to the thick under- 
ground stem or rhizome of the plant. Two forms of ginger are 
exported from Jamaica, the peeled and unpeeled ginger. The 
peeled ginger is prepared by scalding the tubers in hot water and 
then removing the epidermis by means of a knife.* To spice im- 
porters, millers, and distributors, the ginger of West Indies, India 



* Correspondence, Dept. of Agriculture, Jamaica, B. W. T., Oct. 1943. 

42 



Ginger 43 

and Africa are especially well known and of importance in the 
order shown. 




Jamaica Ginger 

WEST INDIES : The spice trade generally considers Jamaica 
ginger to be the best quality. 
Properties of Jamaica Ginger: Color: Very light buff. 

Size and Shape: Pieces vary in size from 2]/ 2 to 3y 2 inches 
in length. Shape, irregular, branched, palmate. 
Appearance: Clean, hard and somewhat fibrous; free from 
cork. 

Aroma and Taste: Agreeable, aromatic, somewhat pungent 
odor and an aromatic, pungent, biting taste. 
Jamaica ginger is graded No. 1, No. 2, No. 3 and Ratoon. 
The last mentioned is an inferior ginger consisting of smaller 
and more fibrous pieces. Exports of ginger from Jamaica for 
the year 1941, amounted to 2,376,919 pounds valued at £ 72,828 
f.o.b. and for the year 1942, 1,845,226 pounds valued at £ 125,- 
213 * (note effect of war on exports and prices). 

INDIA: The production of Indian ginger is "confined to the 
west coast. It occupies an area of 11,600 acres, out of which 
Malabar contributed 11,200 acres." ** Cochin and Calicut ginger 
enjoy considerable demand in the market and are used extensively 



* Correspondence, Dept. of Agriculture, Jamaica, B. W.'L, Oct. 1943. 
** Correspondence, Dept. of Agriculture, Madras, India. 



44 The Spice Handbook 

by spice millers for blending purposes. The color is pale brown. 

Pieces are irregular in shape and size, fibrous, with cork not en- 
tirely removed. 

AFRICA : African ginger, generally available at a lower price 

than the above varieties, is largely employed for blending where 

price is a factor and where color and aroma are not considered 

important. African ginger lacks the fine aroma of Jamaica ginger 

but it has an intensely pungent odor. 

JAPAN : Japanese ginger resembles Cochin ginger but it is 

a generally inferior product, lacking aroma and pungency. It is 

usually limed. 

Ginger is available whole, cracked, or ground. 

Uses: Ginger is used to give flavor and pungency to numerous 
food products including pies, cookies, cakes, biscuits, and 
gingerbread. It is always in demand by bakers and con- 
fectioners. It is employed extensively for the flavoring of 
beverages and essences. Cracked ginger is a constituent of 
whole mixed pickling spice and ground ginger is included 
in the formulae for sausage seasoning, pastry spice, mince- 
meat spice, curry powder and liver sausage seasoning. 

Adulteration: Ginger from which most of the volatile oil has 
been removed is known as ''spent" ginger. When such ginger 
is admixed with pure ginger, it constitutes an adulteration of 
the product. Common adulterants of ground ginger are 
cornmeal and farinaceous products. 

Grinding: Ginger should be cracked and ground fine enough to 
pass through a mesh 58 to 66 screen. 

Packing: Jamaica ginger is packed in jute bags of 180 and 200 
pounds; Cochin ginger in bags of 130 and 136 pounds; Cali- 
cut ginger in bags of 112 and 130 pounds; African ginger 
in bags of 112 pounds. 

Starch: Ginger contains a considerable amount of starch. The 
granules are ovate and characterized by a protuberance at 
one end. 

Essential Oil: Ginger yields from 1 to 3% of volatile oil having 
the following properties : * 
* The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22). 



Ginger 

Specific gravity at 15°C. : 0.872-0.886 
Optical rotation at 20°C. : -25 to -45° 
Refractive index at 20°C. : 1.478-1.495 
Solubility: 1 part in 1-3 parts of 70% alcohol. 



45 




Ginger Starch x 250 



Government Standards: F. D. Canada. "Ginger shall be the 
washed and dried or decorticated and dried rhizome of Zingi- 
ber officinale Roscoe. It shall not contain more than ten (10) 
per cent of moisture, and in the water-free substance more 
than nine (9) per cent of crude fiber, more than one (1) 
per cent of calcium calculated as CaO, more than seven and 
five-tenths (7.5) per cent of total ash, more than two (2) 
per cent of ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid and shall con- 
tain not less than forty-five (45) per cent of ginger starch, 
not less than two (2) per cent of ash soluble in water and 
not less than thirteen and three-tenths (13.3) per cent of 
cold water extractive as determined by the method defined 
in Section XLX, Division 1." 

"Jamaica Ginger shall be ginger grown in Jamaica and shall 
contain not less than sixteen and six-tenths (16.6) per cent 
of cold water extractive in the water-free substance." 



46 The Spice Handbook 

"Limed Ginger or Bleached Ginger shall be ginger coated 
with calcium carbonate. It shall conform to the standards 
for ginger except that it may contain more than seven and 
five-tenths (7.5) per cent of total ash but not more than 
eleven (11) per cent of total ash, and may contain more 
than one (1) per cent but not more than two (2) per cent 
of calcium calculated as CaO." 

F. D. No. 2, U.S.A. "GINGER. The washed and dried, or 
decorticated and dried, rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. 
It contains not less than 42 per cent of starch, not more than 
8 per cent of crude fiber, not more than 1 per cent of lime 
(CaO), not less than 12 per cent of cold-water extract, not 
more than 7 per cent of total ash, not more than 2 per cent 
of ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid, nor less than 2 per 
cent of ash soluble in cold water. 

JAMAICA GINGER. Ginger grown in Jamaica. It con- 
tains not less than 15 per cent of cold-water extract, and 
conforms in other respects to the standards for ginger. 

LIMED GINGER, BLEACHED GINGER. Whole 
ginger coated with carbonate of calcium. It contains not more 
than 4 per cent of carbonate of calcium nor more than 10 per 
cent of total ash, and conforms in other respects to the 
standards for ginger." 



CHAPTER 8 

NUTMEG 

Plant: Myristica fragrans Houtt. 
Family: Myristicaceae. 

Nativity and Cultivation: Native to the Moluccas, or Spice 
Islands (East India Archipelago) and cultivated in Penang, 





Nutmeg- 
Transverse View Showing Oil Veins 

Sumatra, Java, Banda Islands, and the British West Indies, 
almost exclusively, from the commercial point of view, from 
from the Island of Grenada. 
Description: An evergreen tree reaching as high as 40 feet or 
more. Its leaves resemble closely those of Rhododendron. 
The fruit is nearly globular, yellowish-green, resembling a 
good sized peach in appearance. When ripe, the fruit splits 
open, revealing the crimson aril (mace) which covers a hard 
shiny brown kernel, about 1/64 of an inch thick. Inside 
the kernel is found the seed, or nutmeg as it is known in 

47 



48 The Spice Handbook 

commerce. The peach-like fruit and the hard shiny kernel 
are not exported. The crimson aril is dried, losing some of 
its crimson color (see mace). 




Nutmeg 

x7>4 

Transverse View Showing Oil Veins Magnified 

Properties of Nutmeg: Color: Grayish-brown. 

Size and Shape: Nutmegs vary in size. The large nuts are 
approximately 1 3/16 inches in length and 13/16 of an inch 
in width. Shape, mostly oval and some nearly globular. 
Appearance : Wrinkled, due to numerous longitudinal furrows 
but smooth to the touch. They are quite hard, yet cut easily. 
When cut transversely, the surface presents a pale brown 
color and reveals many brown veins of various lengths ex- 
tending from the outside or rim of the nutmeg, toward 
the center. It is in these veins that the volatile oil of nutmeg 
is found and pressure upon any one of them by the finger 
nail will cause a prompt exudation of oil. 
Aroma and Taste: A very characteristic and strongly aro- 
matic odor and an aromatic, warm, slightly bitter taste. 
Nutmegs are graded large, medium or small according to 
the number of nutmegs contained in one pound. For example, 
the description Grenada nutmegs, 110s, would indicate the nut- 



Nutmeg 



49 



megs are of West Indies origin and of small size, since the grade 
is 110, or 110 nutmegs to the pound. Medium size nutmegs 




Nutmegs 



average about 90 to the pound and large size nutmegs vary from 
about 60 to 75 to the pound. Nowadays, practically all the West 
India nutmegs shipped to the United States are unassorted and 
unlimed, the main reason being that the use of whole nutmegs 
has almost disappeared. East India nutmegs reach the United 
States limed. The practice of liming is commonly followed for 
the protection of the spice against worms and insect attacks. 

East India nutmegs are generally considered superior, those of 
Penang the best. West India nutmegs are of excellent quality 
though said to lack the fragrance of the East India spice. In 
connection with West India nutmegs the following passage * is 
quite interesting : 

"In Grenada, the area under nutmegs continues to be extended, 



* Taken from : The West Indies Year Book, 1941-42. 



50 The Spice Handbook 

and mace, a derivative of the nutmeg, commands a high price. 
According to Mr. H. C. Sampson, Economic Botanist at Kew, 
England, the reason for the lower price obtained for Grenada 
nutmegs on the English market as compared with the nutmegs 
from the East is that the latter are rounder in shape than those 
from Grenada which are generally oval. It is said, the English 
consumer insists on having the rounder nutmeg, having always 
been accustomed to this shape. The objection seems silly, but 
there it is. If, therefore, Grenada is to sell on the English market, 
she must either alter the shape of her nutmeg or must sell at a 
considerable discount." 

Macassar nutmeg, Papua nutmeg, Male nutmeg, Long nutmeg- 
are recognized under F. D. No. 2, U.S.A. (see Government 
Standards for nutmeg) but they are generally inferior and not 
considered true nutmegs by the spice trade. They are longer 
and narrower and lack the aroma and flavor of true nutmeg. 

Nutmegs are available whole or ground. 
Uses: The culinary uses for nutmeg include the flavoring of 
sweet dishes, pies, puddings and sauces. Nutmegs are in- 
cluded in the formulae for many ground spices and season- 
ings including mincemeat spice, pastry spice, poultry dress- 
ing, sausage, Bologna, and frankfurter seasonings. 
Adulteration : Whole nutmegs do not lend themselves to adulter- 
ation but the ground spice is sometimes found adulterated 
with farinaceous products although the various pure food 
laws have practically prevented the distribution of adulterated 
ground nutmeg. 
Grinding : Nutmegs should be ground fine enough to pass through 
a mesh 29 to 38 screen according to the degree of fineness 
required. Ground nutmeg is a dull yellowish-brown in color. 
Packing : East Indies nutmegs are packed in bags of 200 pounds 
and in cases or bags of 136 pounds. West Indies nutmegs 
are packed in bags averaging 200 pounds gross weight. 
Starch: Nutmeg contains considerable starch. The grar.ules are 
round and vary in size. They are seen under the microscope 
in groups of two or four. 



Nutmeg 5 1 

Essential Oil: Nutmeg yields from 7 to 15% of volatile oil hav- 
ing the following properties : * 
Specific gravity at 15°C: 0.865-0.930 
Optical rotation at 20°C. : +10 to +30° 
Refractive index at 25 °C. : 1.475-1.489 
Solubility: 1 part in 3 parts of 90% alcohol. 




Nutmeg Starch 
x 250 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U.S.A. "NUTMEG. The dried seed of My- 
ristica fragrans Houtt. Deprived of its testa, with or with- 
out a thin coating of lime (CaO). It contains not less than 
25 per cent of non-volatile ether extract, not more than 10 
per cent of crude fiber, not more than 5 per cent of total 
ash, nor more than 0.5 per cent of ash insoluble in hydro- 
chloric acid. 

MACASSAR NUTMEG, PAPUA NUTMEG, MALE 
NUTMEG, LONG NUTMEG. The dried seed of My- 
ristica agentea Warb. deprived of its testa." 



* The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22). 



CHAPTER 9 



MACE 



Mace is a product of the nutmeg tree, Myristica f ragrans Houtt. 
The tree has already been described under nutmeg. The mace of 
commerce is the crimson aril which clothes the nutmeg kernel. 
The aril is skillfully removed, flattened and dried when it changes 




Bombay Mace 



in color to a pale yellowish or reddish brown and becomes horny 
and brittle. Banda and Penang mace are considered by the trade 
to be of superior quality. This true mace must be differentiated 
from mace consisting of the aril of Myristica argentiea Warb., 
known as Macassar or Papua mace, or, of the aril of Myristica 
malabarica Lam., known as Bombay or wild mace. The first 
tree is native to New Guinea and the second to India. 

52 



Mace 



53 




True Mace 

(Grenada) 



Properties of True Mace: Color: varies from yellowish-brown 
to reddish-brown. 

Size and Shape: Approximately 1 3/16 inches in length. 
Flat pieces of no particular shape, branched. 
Appearance : Shiny, smooth, horn-like and brittle. 
Aroma and Taste: Fragrant, nutmeg-like odor and an aro- 
matic, slightly warm taste. 
Mace is available whole, broken, or, ground. 
According to the West Indies Year Book, 1941-42, mace to the 

value of £ 38,507 was exported from those islands during the 

year 1940. Of this amount £ 2,939 went to the United States 

and £ 3,624 went to the Dominion of Canada. 

Properties of Bombay Mace: Color: Dark reddish-brown. 

Size and Shape: Length, \y 2 inches. Shape, elongated and 
dome-like. 

Appearance : Complete aril, numerous branches, shiny, horn- 
like and brittle. 
Aroma and Taste: Practically odorless and definitely tasteless. 

Grading of True Mace: True mace is graded No. 1, or No. 2 



54 The Spice Handbook 

according to color and quality. Broken mace is graded 
similarly. 

Uses : The culinary uses for mace include the flavoring of cakes, 
biscuits, preserves, sauces, fish and meat dishes, and pickling. 
It is employed in the commercial manufacture of certain 
foodstuffs such as tomato catsup, Yorkshire relish, mustard 
sauce, Worcester sauce, frankfurters and Cambridge sau- 
sage. It is also employed by the bakery trade for the making 
of basic sweet dough, etc. Mace is a constituent of a number 
of ground spice formulae including mincemeat spice, poultry 
dressing, pork sausage spice and frankfurter seasoning. 

Adulteration: Whole and broken mace is sometimes found 
adulterated with wild mace. Common adulterants of ground 
mace are farinaceous products, wild mace, and cheaper spices 
of similar aroma and flavor. 

Grinding: Mace should be ground fine enough to pass through 
a mesh 29 to 38 screen according to the degree of fineness 
desired. 

Packing: Banda mace is packed in cases of 110 and 160 pounds, 
Amboyna mace in cases of 135 and 200 pounds, West Indies 
mace in cases of 200, 250 and 363^ pounds, West Indies 
(Grenada) broken mace in cases of 112 and 200 pounds. 
Bombay mace is packed in bags of 170 pounds. 

Essential Oil: "Mace contains from 7 to 14% of a volatile oil, 
which resembles closely in chemical and therapeutic properties 
the oil of nutmeg." * 

Mace oil (ex arrilus of nutmeg) has the following proper- 
ties : ** 

Specific gravity at 15°C. : 0.890-0.930 
Optical refraction at 20°C : +10 to +20° 
Refractive index at 20°C. : 1.476-1.480 
Solubility: 1 part in 3 parts of 90% alcohol. 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U.S.A. "MACE. The dried arillus of Myristica 



* U. S. Dispensatory, 23rd Ed., p. 1430. 
**The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22). 



Mace 55 

fragrans Houtt. It contains not less than 20 per cent nor 
more than 30 per cent of non-volatile ether extract, not more 
than 10 per cent of crude fiber, not more than 3 per cent 
of total ash, nor more than 0.5 per cent of ash insoluble in 
hydrochloric acid. 

MACASSAR MACE, PAPUA MACE. The dried arillus 
of Myristica argentea Warb." 



CHAPTER 10 

PEPPER 

Black Pepper 

Plant: Piper nigrum L. 

Family: Piperaceae. 

Nativity and Cultivation: Native to the East Indies and culti- 




l _;;_ , ^j 

Black Pepper 

vated extensively in tropical countries including India, French 

Indo-China, Sumatra, Java, and Thailand. 
Description: A perennial climbing shrub. 
Properties of Black Pepper: Color: Dark brown to black. 

Size and Shape: Diameter, 5/32 to 3/16 of an inch. Shape, 

nearly globular. 

Appearance : Small, wrinkled berries. The deep-set wrinkles 

form a characteristic network on the surface of the dried 

black pepper berry. 

Aroma and Taste: Characteristic, penetrating, aromatic odor 

and a hot, biting and very pungent taste. 
There are approximately 520 whole black peppercorns of fair 

56 



Pepper 



57 



size and quality in one ounce and approximately 8,320 in one 
pound. 

There are many varieties of black pepper known to the trade. 
They take their names from the localities where grown or from 




Transverse View of Black Pepper 

the ports through which they are exported, e.g., Singapore, 
Penang, Tellicherry, Alleppey, Lampong, and Saigon. 




Black Pepper 
x 7/ 2 



58 The Spice Handbook 

Lampong black pepper is that pepper grown in the Lampong 
district of Sumatra, Dutch East Indies. 

Singapore black pepper is grown in surrounding localities and 
exported through Singapore. 

Penang black pepper is grown in the Acheen district of Sumatra 
and shipped from Penang. This pepper is also known as Acheen, 

Tellicherry black pepper is a product of the Malabar coast of 
southern India and is shipped from Tellicherry. 

Alleppey black pepper is also a product of the Malabar coast 
but exported through the port of Alleppey in the District of 
Travencore. 

Saigon black pepper is a product of French Indo-China and 
takes its name from Saigon, a provincial capital of that country. 

These peppers differ slightly from each other in their physical 
and chemical properties, the color, size and flavor varying among 
them as well as amounts of crude fiber, ash, starch, volatile and 
non-volatile extract, etc. Tellicherry and Alleppey peppercorns 
are large, dark reddish-brown, very aromatic, and of high grade; 
the harvesting process includes special washings. Lampong and 
Singapore peppercorns are smaller and more shriveled but very 
pungent. 

Madras Presidency, India, exports about 2,000 tons of black 
pepper annually. "The pepper vine is grown in Mysore, Coorg, 
Travencore and the west coast of Madras Province. The total 
area under this crop during 1941-42 in Madras Presidency was 
about 105,000 acres out of which Malabar alone accounted for 
96,368 acres. South Kanara is the only other district in Madras 
Province producing pepper and it accounted for the rest of the 
area." * 

The production of pepper is heaviest in the Dutch East Indies 
amounting in some years to 40,000 tons.** 

White Pepper 
White pepper is obtained by depriving the dried mature pepper- 



* Correspondence, Dept. of Agriculture, Madras, India. 
** Spice Manual and Directory, 1943, A. S. T. A., p. 101. 



Pepper 



59 



corns of Piper nigrum of their outer dark coating. This is ac- 
complished by soaking- the black peppercorns in water to soften 
and loosen the dark outer coating or hull, followed by a process 
of bruising or rubbing to remove the hull, or it may be effected 
by the mechanical decortication of the dried black peppercorns. 




White Pepper 



Properties of White Pepper: Color: Light yellowish-gray. 

Size and Shape: Diameter, 5/32 to 3/16 of an inch. Shape, 
nearly globular. 

Appearance: Smooth, striated surface, flattened and indented 
at one point with a small protuberance diametrically opposite. 
The longitudinal striations are very distinct on some pepper- 
corns and indistinct or not visible on others. 
Aroma and Taste: Characteristic, penetrating, aromatic odor 
and a hot, biting and pungent taste. 
There are approximately 538 to 879 whole white peppercorns, 

according to source and quality, in one ounce and approximately 

8,608 to 14,064 in one pound. 

Like black pepper, the varieties of white pepper take their names 

from the localities in which the pepper is grown or from the 

ports through which it is exported. The varieties of white pepper 



60 



The Spice Handbook 



best known to commerce are Singapore, Muntok, Siam, Sarawak, 
and Tellicherry. 




Transverse View of White Pepper 

x7/ 2 

Singapore white pepper is produced in surrounding localities 
and exported through Singapore. 




White Pepper 

x 7y 2 

Showing Striations 






Pepper 61 

Muntok white pepper is a product of the Dutch East Indies and 
exported through the port of Muntok. 

Sarawak white pepper is a product of Sarawak, a British 
possession in the island of Borneo. 

Tellicherry white pepper is produced on the Malabar coast 
of India and exported through Tellicherry. 

Siam white pepper is produced in Siam (now known as Thai- 
land). 

These are all good grade peppers. Tellicherry white pepper is 
very highly esteemed but not abundant. 

Uses: Culinary seasoning of universal use and an essential in- 
gredient of numerous commercial foodstuffs. Pepper is an 
important constituent of whole pickling spice and many 
ground spice formulae including poultry dressing, sausage, 
Bologna, summer sausage, hamburger, and frankfurter 
seasonings. 
Under the rules of the American Spice Trade Association for 
standard arrival, standard spot, and standard future contracts, 
"All pepper shall be subject to allowance if it contains a greater 
percentage of dust, dirt, stems, chaff, or extraneous matter than 
is customary in pepper of its kind, and in no case to exceed 3 per 
cent, as determined by sifting through a No. 9^> roundhole sieve." 
Adulteration: Apart from "dust, dirt, stems, chaff or extraneous 
matter," whole pepper is not likely to be adulterated. The 
common adulterants of ground pepper include pepper shells, 
ground fruit stones, rice, linseed, buckwheat hulls, mustard 
seed, wheat and corn products. 
Grinding: Black pepper should be ground fine enough to pass 
through a mesh 38 to 48 screen. White pepper should be 
ground fine enough to pass through a mesh 48 screen or finer, 
according to the degree of fineness required. Pure ground 
black pepper is brownish-gray and pure ground white pepper 
is grayish-white in color. In each case, the ground pepper 
is speckled with the dark fragments of their respective 
coatings. Decorticating : Using as large-berried black pepper 
as can be secured, many of the larger spice grinding firms 



62 The Spice Handbook 

have machines which remove the outer (black) shell of the 
berry leaving the inner portion which is yellow and is known 
as ''decorticated white pepper" while the ordinary white 
pepper is grayish. This material commands a high market 
premium and is specially desired for use in producing mayon- 
naise and similar articles where black specks are undesirable. 
Packing: Black pepper is packed in jute bags of 140 pounds and 
white pepper is packed in bags of 135, 158, and 200 pounds 
weight. 




Pepper Starch 
x250 

Starch: The average starch content of black pepper is about 

33% and of white pepper 56%. The granules are very 

small and are seen under the microscope in irregular masses 

as well as individual grains. 
Essential Oil : A volatile oil is obtained from black pepper which 

has, according to the Merck Index, the following properties : 

Specific gravity at 15°C. : 0.890-0.900 

Optical rotation about: —3° to —5° 

Refractive index at 20°C. : 1.4935-1.4977 






Pepper 63 

Principal constituent : 1-phelandrene. 

Solubility : Insoluble in water. Soluble in alcohol, one part to 
15 parts of 90% alcohol. 
Government Standards: F. D. Canada. "Black Pepper shall be 
the dried immature berry of Piper nigrum L., and shall con- 
tain not less than six and seventy-five hundredths (6.75) per 
cent of non-volatile ether extract, not less than thirty (30) 
per cent of pepper starch and shall not contain more than 
seven (7) per cent of total ash or more than one and five- 
tenths (1.5) per cent of ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid. 

Ground Black Pepper shall be the product made by grind- 
ing the entire berry, as above defined. It shall contain the 
several parts of the berry in their normal proportions and 
shall conform in its composition to the standards for black 
pepper. 

White Pepper shall be the dried mature berry of Piper 
nigrum L. from which the outer coating, or the outer and 
inner coatings have been removed. It shall contain not less 
than seven (7) per cent of non-volatile ether extract, not 
less than fifty-two (52) per cent of pepper starch and it 
shall not contain more than five (5) per cent of crude fiber, 
more than three and five-tenths (3.5) per cent of total ash 
or more than three-tenths of one (0.3) per cent of ash 
insoluble in hydrochloric acid. 

Ground White Pepper shall be the product made by grind- 
ing white pepper and shall conform in its composition to 
the standards for white pepper." 

F. D. No. 2, U.S.A. "BLACK PEPPER. The dried im- 
mature berry of Piper nigrum L. It contains not less than 
6.75 per cent of non-volatile ether extract, not less than 30 per 
cent of starch, not more than 7 per cent of total ash, nor 
more than 1.5 per cent of ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid. 

GROUND BLACK PEPPER. The product made by 
grinding the entire berry of Piper nigrum L. It contains the 
several parts of the berry in their normal proportions. 

WHITE PEPPER. The dried mature berry of Piper 



64 The Spice Handbook 

nigrum L. from which the outer coating (or the outer and 
inner coatings) have been removed. It contains not less than 
7 per cent of non-volatile ether extract, not less than 52 per 
cent of starch, not more than 5 per cent of crude fiber, not 
more than 3.5 per cent of total ash, nor more than 0.3 per 
cent of ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid." 

Long Pepper 

According to F. D. No. 2, U.S.A., long pepper is the dried fruit 
of Piper longum L. The standard does not recognize Piper 
ofncinarum Casimir DC.,* although it seems to be the more 
important source of long pepper. The former plant is cultivated 
chiefly in Bengal, India and the latter in Java, Netherlands East 
Indies. 

The dried fruits are roughly cylindrical, being about 3/16 to 
5/16 of an inch in diameter and about J4 to 2 inches or more 
in length. The fruit is spirally-furrowed, grayish-brown in color 
and has an aromatic odor and pungent taste. It is used chiefly 
for pickling purposes but the spice is not abundant. 



* U. S. Dispensatory, 2nd Ed. 



CHAPTER 11 



CAPSICUM SPICES 

(Genus Capsicum) 

Red Pepper 

Cayenne pepper, paprika, red pepper and chilli powder are all 
prepared from the dried, ripe fruits of the genus Capsicum. 




Red Peppers 

Right : Long Red Cayenne 

Top Left : Domestic Sports 

Bottom Left : Congo Chillies 



Dried Capsicum red peppers vary considerably in size, shape 
and flavor. The small, very acrid peppers are known as chillies 
and they are used whole for pickling purposes or they are ground 
to make Cayenne pepper. Paprika is manufactured from the 
larger pods and may be sweet, semi-sweet, mildly pungent or 
pungent. Red pepper may refer to Cayenne or may be the pungent, 
dried whole or ground pods of a variety of Capsicum annuum 
such as var. acuminatum. Chilli powder is made by grinding 

65 



66 The Spice Handbook 

selected pods of mild or pungent varieties of the genus Capsicum 
depending upon whether a mild or "hot" product is required. 

In this hook Cayenne pepper has been ascribed to Capsicum 
frutescens, Capsicum baccatum, or some other small fruited 
species of Capsicum, and paprika has been ascribed to Capsicum 
annuum. This was done to agree with Government Standards 
but since considerable confusion seems to exist concerning the 
number of species of Capsicum, the reader's attention is drawn to 
the following enlightening extract from the bulletin by A. T. 
Erwin* and also to The National Formulary standard for Capsi- 
cum under "Cayenne pepper." "The genus comprises a wide range 
of forms, particularly as to the shape and pungency of the fruit. 
At one time or another many of these variations have been 
described as species. Linnaeus in his Hortus Clifforensis, 1737, 
describes two species, C. annuum and C. frutescens. Fingerhuth, 
1832, recognized 25 species and 28 botanical varieties; three of 
the species and all the botanical varieties were first described 
by him. Irish in his monograph on the Capsicums reduced the 
number to two species, namely C. annuum and C. frutescens, 
but does not clearly differentiate between the two species. Bailey 
reduced these two species to a single form, namely C. frutescens. 
A study of the garden varieties presents material evidence in 
support of this point of view. Linnaeus, who described the two 
species named above, characterized the one as an annual and 
the other as a perennial, i.e., frutescent or woody. In the North, 
however, both species are killed by the winters and conversely, 
below the frost line both species are perennials. . . We, therefore, 
concur with Bailey that garden peppers all belong to one species 
of pepper. T am convinced,' states Bailey, 'that the horticultural 
kinds are all forms of one species and that the species is shrubby, 
the herbaceous or so-called annual kinds being races that develop 
in a short season and do not become woody before killed by 
frost. In the Capsicum shrubs of the tropics, one finds puffy 



*A. T. Erwin, The Peppers, Bulletin No. 293, June, 1932, Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Iowa State College of Agriculture , and Mechanic Arts. 
Ames, Iowa. 



Capsicum Spices 67 

fruit of the bell-pepper type as well as the slender linger-like 
and berry-like kinds; and when the northern kinds are grown 
in the tropics they become shrubs. Leaf variation also has an 
equal range. I, therefore, propose to arrange the most significant 
forms of this multifarious species under C. frutescens rather 
than under C. annuum. In doing so, I accept the second rather 
than the first of the two names proposed by Linnaeus in Species 
Plantarum, but when no question of authority or priority is 
involved, I cannot allow the incident of precedence on pages to 
obscure a biological fact.' Irish concurs in this point of view. 
'From a further study of the genus Capsicum, I have reached 
the conclusion that the garden varieties are simply dwarf northern 
forms of C. frutescens.' 

If one accepts the hypothesis that the cultivated forms represent 
but one species, the question still remains as to whether the 
designation should be annuum or frutescens. According to the 
American code it would be the former because it takes precedence 
on the page in Linnaeus' description, but such is not the case 
in the International code. The use of a term which contradicts 
the facts of the case by calling a plant an annual which is a 
perennial is not advisable. We, therefore, refer to C. frutescens 
all of the garden forms of peppers." 

A. T. Erwin classifies the varieties of red Capsicum fruits under 
seven headings, selecting the name of a familiar variety of each 
group for the title name as follows : 

" Tabasco Group 

This group is characterized by small, erect, elongated 
fruits which are very pungent. The pods are borne singly, 
in pairs or in clusters and average from 1 to 3 inches long. 
The fruits are compressed at the base and appear above the 
foliage ; peduncles slender, straight and erect ; calyx cup-shaped. 
The Tabasco is perhaps the best known variety of this group, 
and from it is made the famous Tabasco sauce. It is one of the 
smallest-podded varieties of long peppers, but what it lacks in 
size is made up in pungency. . . The Tabasco group includes the 



68 



The Spice Handbook 



two botanical varieties conoides and fasciculatum of Irish, 
varieties belonging to the Tabasco group are: 



The 



Cardinal 

Chili Dwarf 

Chili Piquin 

Coral Gem 

De Bouquet Rouge 

Japanese Cluster 

Japanese Fuschin Pungent 

Japanese Tassel 



Orange Red Cluster 
Red Chili 
Red Cluster 
Small Cayenne 
Small Chili 
Small Red Chili 
Tabasco 
True Red Chili 



Very Small Cayenne." 

"Cayenne Group 

The Cayenne group, often called chili or finger peppers, is 
characterized by long curved pods ranging from 4 to 12 inches 
in length. In some varieties, as the Cayenne, the pods are slender ; 
in others the base is enlarged, forming an elongated conical shape. 
Flesh ranges from thin to moderately thick; color red. Most 
varieties are distinctly pungent, but some are only mildly so. 
Fruits commonly pendent, but semi-erect in some varieties. Calyx 
cup-shaped in the slender-fruited varieties, and semi-flattened 
in the larger-fruited forms ; peduncles short, often stout, and 
curved. The varieties comprising the Cayenne group are : 



Anaheim 

Anaheim Giant Chili 

Bulgarian Hot 

Bulgarian Long Hot 

Cayenne 

Cayenne Langer, Dunner 

Roter 
Cayenne Pickling 
Chili Ancho 
Come d'Orient 
Du Chili, smallest of the 

Cayennes 
Dwarf Chili 
Garcia's No. 9 



Giant Cayenne 

Half Long Hot 

Half Long Narrow Cayenne 

Hungarian 

Hungarian Long Wax 

Hungarian Wax 

Improved Thick Long Red 

Japanese Fuschin, Sweet, 
Green 

Japanese Fuschin Pungent 

Japanese Nikko Long Scarlet 

Japanese Ornamental, Varie- 
gated 

Jaune Demi Long Antibes 



Capsicum Spices 



69 



Jaune Long 

Large Anaheim Chili 

Large Red Chili 

Large Thick Cayenne 

Long Cayenne 

Long Narrow 

Long Narrow Cayenne 

Long Red 

Long Red Cayenne 

Mammoth Cayenne 

Mexican Chili 

New Giant Cayenne 

New Quality 

Pot Herb 

"Cherry Group 



Prolific 

Prolific Red 

Red Cayenne 

Red Chili 

Rainbow 

Red Dawn 

Red Hot 

Rouge Long Ordinaire 

Rouge Long Ordinaire Paivre 

Santa Fe 

Short Thick Cayenne 

Thick Long Red 

Trompe d'Elephant 

True Red Chili." 



The pods of this group are cherry-shaped or globose. The 
fruits are borne on long, slender, upright pedicels which carry 
the fruit more or less above the foliage. The berries are orange 
to a deep red in color, solitary, three celled, pungent. The varieties 
of this group are used to only a minor degree as a condiment. 
They are an attractive ornamental and are widely grown under 
glass for the holiday trade. The varieties included in this group 
are: 

Bird Cherry Japanese Miniature 

Bird's Eye Large Cherry 

Cerise Red Cherry 

Cherry Small Cherry 

Creole Tom Thumb 

Yellow Cherry." 

"Celestial Group 

In the Celestial group the pods are cone shaped, Y\ to 1 Y\ 
inches long, three-celled; color changing from a yellowish-green 
to purplish, then orange-red. The fruits are three-celled, erect 
and very abundant, appearing above the foliage, and acrid. The 
varieties included in this group are : 



70 



The Spice Handbook 



Celestial 
Chameleon 
Chinios 
Coral Gem 



Floral Gem 
Little Gem 
Prince of Wales 
Spanish Gem." 



"Perfection Group ... T 

Pods distinctly conical to sub-conical, apex bluntly pointed, 
3 to 4 inches long, smooth ; calyx flattened, stems stout, curved ; 

flesh thick, non-pungent. Varieties included in the Perfection 
group are: 

Doux de Genes Salad Pimiento 

Giant Pimiento Spanish Pimiento 

Panama Sweet Genna 

Perfection Sweet Meat Glory 

Pimiento Sweet Salad 

Salad 



Rouge de Cavaillon." 



Tomato Group 



The tomato group is characterized by a distinctly flattened or 
oblate form of four cells which bears a striking resemblance to a 
tomato. The fruit usually is flattened at both the base and apex; 
size 2-4 inches in diameter and half as thick; furrowed walls 
thick, in some varieties as much as V% of an inch; four-celled; 
flavor mild. The varieties that belong to this group are : 



Bickling 

Cheese Pepper 

Early Sweet 

Early Sweet Pimiento 

Polombo 

Red Apple 

Salad 



Squash 

Sunnybrook 

Tomato Nain Hatif 

Tomato Salad 

Tomato Shaped 

Tomato Shaped Pimiento 

Topepo." 



"Bell Group 

Fruits blocky, about 4 inches long and equally as wide, squarish, 
subtruncate to truncate, often deeply furrowed ; apex 3 to 4-nosed ; 
calyx recessed, flattened; flesh thick, as much as 3/g of an inch; 



Capsicum Spices 71 

flavor usually mild, but hot in a few varieties ; color red or yellow. 
The varieties belonging to the Bell group are : 
Bull Nose Harris Earliest 

California Wonder Italian Sweet Neapolitan 

Chinese Giant Kolumbus Roter 

Crimson Giant Large Bell 

Early Giant Magnum Dulce 

Early Giant Neapolitan Neapolitan 

Early Large Neapolitan Ohio Crimson 

Giant Crimson Royal King 

Great Western H Schells Quality 

Hamilton Market Sweet Upright 

Ruby King Sweet Upright Salad." 

Capsicum fruits are an excellent source of vitamin C, a fact 
which could be publicized to a much greater extent than it is now. 
According to "Vitamin Values of Foods," Miscellaneous Publi- 
cation No. 505, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1942, the raw 
peppers have the following vitamin C content : 

Mild 200 milligrams ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in 100 grams. 
Pungent 170 milligrams ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in 100 



Cayenne Pepper 

Plant: Capsicum frutescens Linn., C. baccatum L., or some other 
small-fruited species of Capsicum. (See N. F. standard 
under Government Standards at end of this article.) 

Family: Solanaceae. 

Nativity and Cultivation : Native to tropical America and culti- 
vated in many tropical and subtropical parts of the world 
including South America, Central America, Africa, India 
and Japan. 

Description: A shrubby perennial of the nightshade or potato 
family. C. baccatum is considered a variety of C. frutescens. 

Properties of the Dried Fruit: Color: Dark to bright red ; seeds, 
yellow. 



72 The Spice Handbook 




Cayenne Pepper 

Top Left: Domestic Sports (U. S. A.) 
Top Right: Honka Chillies (Japan) 
Center: Chiltepin (Mexico) 
Center Right: Mombasa Chillies (Africa) 
Bottom Left: Nigerian Chillies (Africa) 
Bottom Right: Congo Chillies (Africa) 

All of These Peppers May Be Used for the Manufacture of Cayenne Pepper 

Size and Shape: The dried peppers vary in length from }i 
to 2 l /\. inches and in width from 3/16 to l />. an inch ac- 
cording to variety. Shape, blunt and roundish at the base, 
tapering to a point; oblong-acuminate. 

Appearance: Dried, shiny pods, flattish and somewhat 
wrinkled. The pods contain numerous small, flat, reniform, 
yellow seeds. 

Aroma and Taste: Characteristic, but not unpleasant odor. 
Their dust, however, disturbed in handling is very ir- 
ritating and annoying. Particularly is this true of the small 
African peppers. Taste, very pungent, sharp and biting. 
Seeds, pungent and acrid. 
Cayenne pepper is the ground product of these small, red, 



Capsicum Spices 73 

dried, ripe fruits. In the whole form, these dried pods are con- 
sidered chillies and are known as Mombasa chillies, Zanzibar 

chillies, Japanese chillies, etc. 

Uses : The culinary uses for Cayenne pepper include the flavoring 
of meat and fish dishes and sauces. It is a constituent of 
curry powder and pork sausage seasoning. The whole pods 
are included in pickling spice formulae. 

Adulteration: Common adulterants of Cayenne pepper are 
farinaceous products, linseed, cereal starches, and ground 
fruit stones. 

Grinding: The whole peppers should be ground fine enough to 
pass through a mesh 38 to 48 screen. 

Packing: The whole peppers are packed in bales of 30 and 84 
pounds and in bags of 100 pounds depending upon variety. 

Essential Oil: Cayenne contains no volatile oil. 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. "Cayenne Pepper, Cay- 
enne shall be the dried ripe fruit of Capsicum frutescens L., 
Capsicum baccatum L., or some other small-fruited species 
of Capsicum. It shall contain not less than fifteen (15) per 
cent of non-volatile ether extract and it shall not contain 
more than one and five-tenths (1.5) per cent of Cayenne 
starch, more than twenty-eight (28) per cent of crude fiber, 
more than eight (8) per cent of total ash or more than one 
and twenty-five hundredths (1.25) per cent of ash insoluble 
in hydrochloric acid." 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. "CAYENNE PEPPER, CAYENNE. 
The dried, ripe fruit of Capsicum frutescens L., C. baccatum 
L., or some other small-fruited species of Capsicum. It 
contains not less than 15 per cent of non-volatile ether 
extract, nor more than 1.5 per cent of starch, not more than 
28 per cent of crude fiber, not more than 8 per cent of 
total ash, nor more than 1.25 per cent of ash insoluble in 
hydrochloric acid." 

The National Formulary Standard: "Capsicum is the dried 
ripe fruit of Capsicum frutescens Linn., known in commerce 
as African Chillies, or of Capsicum annuum Linne var. 



74 The Spice Handbook 

conoides Irish, known in commerce as Tabasco pepper, or 
of Capsicum annuum var. longum Sendt, known in com- 
merce as Louisiana Long Pepper, or, of a hybrid between 
the Honka variety of Japanese Capsicum and the old Louisi- 
ana Sport Capsicum, known in commerce as Louisiana Sport 
Pepper (Family Solanaceae). Capsicum must be labeled to 
indicate which of the above varieties is contained in the 
package. Capsicum contains not more than 3 per cent of its 
stems and calyxes, and not more than 1 per cent of other 
foreign organic matter. It yields not less than 12 per cent 
of a non-volatile ether-soluble extractive and not more than 
1.25 per cent of acid-insoluble ash." * 

Paprika 



Canadian Paprika Pod 
About One Quarter Natural Size 

Plant: Capsicum annuum Linn. 

Family: Solanaceae. 

Nativity and Cultivation : Native to Central America and culti- 
vated in Hungary, Bulgaria, Spain, Portugal, Argentine, 
Chile, United States and Canada. 



* The National Formulary, Seventh Edition, taken from the U. S. Dis- 
pensatory, 23rd Ed. p. 255, CAPSICUM, Capsic (Cayenne Pepper). 



Capsicum Spices 75 

Description: Herbaceous annuals in temperate climates, bien- 
nials or perennials in warm and tropical climates. 
Paprika is the powder prepared by grinding the dried ripe pods 
of varieties of C. annuum. In the manufacture of first quality 
paprika, only carefully selected pods are used and of these only 
the fleshy pericarp and seeds are ground. Stalks, stems, and 
placentae are included in the preparation of lower and inferior 
grades. 

Properties of Good Quality, Mild, Paprika: Color: Bright, 
rich red to bright, rich dark red. 

Aroma and Taste: A slight, pleasant odor, and an agreeable, 
slightly sweet, and mildly pungent taste. 
The properties of paprika vary considerably depending upon the 
variety of C. annuum grown, conditions governing production, 
methods of processing, etc. The color may vary from dull, 
medium or bright brick-red to the bright, rich dark red of first 
quality paprika. The aroma may vary from the unpleasant cocoa- 
like odor of inferior grades to the slight, but pleasant, odor of 
superior grades. The taste may vary from none at all to sweet, 
mildly pungent, or strongly pungent. The war, shutting out 
Hungarian ("Noble sweet, ,, "Semi-sweet," "Rose," "Strong" 
and "Mercantile" paprika) and Bulgarian paprika, has proved 
an incentive to production in certain neutral countries and to 
growers and manufacturers here in America. Today paprika 
reaches our markets from Spanish, Portuguese, Chilean, Argen- 
tine, American and Canadian producers. More Portuguese 
paprika has been imported in the U. S., since 1941, than any 
other type. It is worthy of note that U. S. growers of paprika 
pods produced a commercial crop estimated according to the 
Spice Manual and Directory,* at about three million pounds in 
1942. The quality of United States and Canadian paprika is most 
desirable but production of the latter is not yet very great. 
Uses: Because of its rich color, flavor, and vitamin C content, 
paprika is quite a culinary favorite and is used for garnish- 



* Spice Manual and Directory, 1943, p. 100, A. S. T. A. 



76 The Spice Handbook 

ing and flavoring the following foods : fish and meat dishes, 
salad dressing, salads, canapes, poached and devilled eggs, 
devilled chicken, etc. It is also employed in the commercial 
manufacture of foodstuffs including fancy meats, tomato 
catsup, chilli sauce, biscuits, etc. Paprika is an ingredient 
of a number of ground spice formulae including frankfurter, 
Bologna, and summer sausage. 

Adulteration : The adulteration of paprika is not unknown, corn- 
starch, cornmeal, ground wheat, ground linseed and other 
edible adulterants being employed. Olive oil is sometimes 
used in grinding to intensify color. Because color is an im- 
portant property of paprika, it is sometimes found bolstered 
by the addition of coal tar or vegetable dyes. The blending 
of cheap, inferior grades with first quality paprika to bring- 
down the price is sometimes practiced, the deception arising 
when such paprika is represented as a first quality product. 

Grinding: Paprika is not usually ground by spice millers. Good 
quality paprika is generally fine enough to pass through a 
mesh 74 screen. 

Packing: Hungarian, Bulgarian, Spanish, Portuguese and 
Chilean paprika is packed in 110 pound bags. Some Chilean 
paprika is packed in 35 kilogram (77 pounds) bags. 
Canadian and American paprika is sometimes packed in 200 
pound barrels. 

Essential Oil: Paprika contains no volatile oil. 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. "PAPRIKA. The dried, ripe fruit 
of Capsicum annuum L. It contains not more than 8.5 
per cent of total ash, not more than 1 per cent of ash in- 
soluble in hydrochloric acid. The iodine number of its ex- 
tracted oil is not less than 125, nor more than 136. 

HUNGARIAN PAPRIKA. Paprika having the pun 

gency and flavor characteristic of that grown in Hungary. 

a. Rosenpaprika, rosapaprika, rose paprika, is Hungarian 

paprika prepared by grinding specially selected pods of 

paprika, from which the placentae, stalks, and stems 



Capsicum Spices 77 

have been removed. It contains no more seeds than 
the normal pods, not more than 18 per cent of non- 
volatile ether extract, not more than 23 per cent of 
crude fiber, not more than 6 per cent of total ash, nor 
more than 0.4 per cent of ash insoluble in hydrochloric 
acid, 
b. Koenigspaprika, king's paprika, is Hungarian paprika 
prepared by grinding whole pods of paprika without 
selection, and includes the seeds and stems naturally 
occurring with the pod. It contains not more than 18 
per cent of non-volatile ether extract, not more than 
23 per cent of crude fiber, not more than 6.5 per cent 
of total ash, nor more than 0.5 per cent of ash insoluble 
in hydrochloric acid. 
PIMENTON, PIMIENTO, SPANISH PAPRIKA. 
Paprika having the characteristics of that grown in Spain. 
It contains not more than 18 per cent of non-volatile ether 
extract, not more than 21 per cent of crude fiber, not more 
than 8.5 per cent of total ash, nor more than 1 per cent of 
ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid." 

Chillies 




Chilli Ancho 

Known as "Mexican Chilli Pods" 

Chillies are small, whole, red, very pungent, dried ripe Capsicum 
fruits. The best known are : 



78 



The Spice Handbook 




Chillies 

Top Left : African Nigerian 
Top Right : Japanese Honka 
Bottom Left: African Mombasa 
Bottom Right : Mexican Chiltepin 



African : Mombasa 
Congo 
Zanzibar 



Nigerian 



Properties similar. 

Size: Length, 3/g to y% of an 

inch. 

Color: Murky brownish-red. 

Appearance : Wrinkled, shiny, 

dull to moderately bright. 

Taste: Very acrid. 

Size: Length, J / 2 to lj4 inches. 

Color: Bright red. 

Appearance: Wrinkled, shiny, 

very bright. 

Taste: Acrid. 



Capsicum Spices 79 

Mexican: Chiltepin Size: Length, Y^ to 9/16 of an 

(also known as Chilepi- inch, 
quine, Chili piquin, Chile Color: Orange-red. 
petine) Appearance: Smooth, shiny and 

bright. 

Taste: Very acrid. 
Japanese: Honka Size: Length, 1 to 2 inches, 

(known as Hontakas) Color: Orange-red to dark red. 

Appearance: Compressed, 
somewhat wrinkled, shiny and 
bright. 

Taste: Very pungent. 
United States of America: Size: Length, 1 to 2j4 inches. 

Domestic Sports Color: Deep red to orange-red. 

(Louisiana Sport Pepper) Appearance : Smooth, shiny and 

bright. 

Taste: Very pungent. 
Another well-known chilli of commercial importance is the 
Tabasco. Tabasco chillies are small, extremely pungent peppers 
used in the making of Cayenne pepper and in the manufacture 
of Tabasco sauce, a product widely employed to add a piquant 
touch to oysters on the half-shell and to shell-fish cocktails. 
Tabasco chillies are cultivated in the Gulf States of the United 
States of America and in Mexico. They are native to Mexico and 
named after the River Tabasco.* 

The small African chillies, when disturbed, give off an of- 
fensive, irritating, acrid dust and should be handled with care. 
Do not put fingers to the eyes after handling chillies and do not 
taste the chillies if you would like to avoid painful, smarting 
eyes and mouth. This applies also to the large-fruited varieties 
of pungent red peppers. 

The word "chilli" or "chili" is used to name some of the 
large-fruited varieties of the Cayenne group. Mexican chilli pods 
(Chile Ancho, var. acuminatum), the dried fruits of a member 
of this group are extensively used for the manufacture of the 
popular Mexican chilli powder, with or without blended spices. 



*A. T. Erwin, The Peppers, Bulletin No. 293, June, 1932. 



80 The Spice Handbook 

These chillies are 3j4 to 4J4 inches long and 2y 2 to 2% inches 
wide at the broadest part when measured in the dried, collapsed 
condition. The fruits are wrinkled, shiny, and maroon colored. 
The calyx is of the flat or saucer type and adheres firmly to the 
pod. The peduncle is curved, stout and from \y 2 to 2 inches 
long. The flesh is moderately pungent. 

The bull nose pepper, a large, almost square, thick-fleshed, mild 
fruit of a variety of the bell group is often referred to as a chilli. 

Whereas there may be no lexical reason why the word "chilli" 
should not be given to the Capsicum fruit regardless of variety 
or size, the word is generally confined to the small, pungent 
peppers and the larger peppers, pungent or otherwise, should 
not be confused with them. 

Chillies are used in the manufacture of Cayenne pepper and 
employed whole for pickling purposes. 



CHAPTER 12 

TURMERIC 

Plant: Curcuma longa L. 
Family : Zingiberaceae. 

Nativity and Cultivation: Native to East Indies and Cochin- 
China and cultivated in China, India ("Occupies an area 




Alleppey Turmeric 

of about 42,000 acres, the chief centers of production being 
the districts of Kistna, Guntar, Cuddapah, Coimbatore and 
Malabar." *), East Indies (Java) and West Indies (Haiti). 

Description: An herbaceous plant with a perennial rootstock or 
rhizome. The rhizomes are cleaned, washed and sun-dried. 

Properties of the Spice: Color: Deep yellow to orange-yellow. 

Alleppey Turmeric: Size and Shape: The rhizomes of turmeric 
vary in size from about 1 to 3 inches in length and from 
about 5/16 to y 2 an inch in thickness. The pieces are roughly 



* Correspondence, Dept. of Agriculture, Madras, India. 

81 



82 The Spice Handbook 

cylindrical, curved and tapering at the ends. Some pieces are 
palmate (known as fingers), some have tubercle-like pro- 
tuberances, while others are plainly cylindrical but thicker 
toward one end (known as bulbs). 

Appearance : Rough and hard with numerous ridge-like rings 
encirling the rhizome; annulate. The rhizome is not easily 
broken but when fractured, it breaks clean, not being splint- 
ery or fibrous. The surface of the fracture is darker than 
the exterior of the rhizome, waxy and resinous in appear- 
ance. A very thin line describing a circle is seen on the 
surface. If the surface is wet and pressed against white 
paper, a deep yellow stain will be left. 

Aroma and Taste: Characteristic, peppery odor and a slightly 
aromatic, somewhat bitter taste. 
Powdered turmeric is manufactured by grinding the rhizomes. 

The colors of the ground product are : 
Alleppey — orange yellow 
Madras — lemon yellow 
Most U. S. users of turmeric, particularly where the finished 

product is packed in glass containers, prefer the Alleppey because 

experience has shown that it will hold its color better than the 

Madras when exposed to direct or indirect sunlight. Haiti ground 

turmeric is a very dark orange-yellow in color. 

Uses: Turmeric is employed in the kitchen for the flavoring of 
meat and tgg dishes. It is used in the manufacture of cheap 
mustard, the practice being to compound pure mustard with 
a quantity of soft flour and add ground turmeric in sufficient 
quantity to bring the color up to standard. It is also used 
in the manufacture of pickles and it is an important in- 
gredient of curry powder. 

Adulteration: Whole turmeric is not subject to adulteration and 
because the ground product possesses such a distinctive color, 
it is unlikely that adulteration would be attempted. Certainly 
it would be difficult to find a product for the purpose that 
would not immediately show its presence. 



Turmeric 83 

Grinding: Turmeric should be ground fine enough to pass 

through a mesh 74 screen. 
Packing: Turmeric is packed in bags of approximately 140 pounds 

net weight. 
Essential Oil: Turmeric contains about 5% * of volatile oil 

having a specific gravity ** of 0.942-0.952. 




Turmeric Starch x 250 

Starch: The granules of turmeric starch are large and very 
characteristic. They are roughly ovate but irregular in shape 
and have a shell-like surface. 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. "CURCUMA, TURMERIC. The 
dried rhizome or bulbous root of Curcuma Longa L." 



* Merck Index, Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, N. J., 1940, 5th Ed., p. 182. 
** Calculated from the little information available on this oil. The range 
is probably greater. 



PART 3 

Aromatic Seeds 



CHAPTER 13 

ANISE 

Plant: Pimpinella anisum L. 
Family: Umbelliferae. 

Nativity and Cultivation: Native to Egypt and cultivated in 
temperate, warm and hot climates including Russia, Turkey, 




Aniseed 

Syria, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Germany, Italy, France, Spain, 

India, Mexico and South America. 
Description: An annual herbacious plant of the parsley family. 
Properties of the Seed: Color: Greenish-gray to grayish-brown. 

Size and Shape: Length, from 3/32 to 3/16 of an inch. 

Shape, oval. 

Appearance : United or separate mericarps with short length 

of stalk (pedicel) attached. Five longitudinal ridges on 

each mericarp are clearly visible. Viewed under the low 

87 



88 The Spice Handbook 

power of the microscope, the surface between the ridges is 
seen to be covered with numerous short hairs. 
Aroma and Taste: Characteristic, agreeable odor and a 
pleasant, aromatic taste. 




Aniseed x 7y 2 

Aniseed is available whole or ground. There are approximately 

6,440 whole, united mericarps in one ounce and approximately 

103,040 in one pound. 

Uses: Aniseed is employed by the bakery trade to flavor rolls, 
cakes, cookies and biscuits and by confectioners to flavor 
licorice and other candies. It is also in demand by manu- 
facturers of foods for domestic animals. It is used ex- 
tensively for flavoring anisette and other liqueurs. 

Adulteration: Whole anise is subject to adulteration with ex- 
hausted seeds, excessive stems and earth. The ground seed 
is sometimes found adulterated with fennel. This seed is 
considerably cheaper than aniseed and its aroma and flavor 
are similar to anise. 

Grinding: Anise should be ground fine enough to pass through 
a mesh 54 screen. 

Packing: Anise is packed in bags of various weights depending 
upon the source of seed. Spanish aniseed is packed in bags 



Anise 89 

of 110 pounds, Mexican in bags of 145 pounds and Bul- 
garian in bags of 175 pounds. 

Essential Oil: Aniseed yields from 2 to 3% of essential oil hav- 
ing the following properties : * 
Specific gravity at 20° C. : 0.975-0.990 
Optical rotation at 20 °C. : to -2° 
Refractive index at 25°C. : 1.552-1.558 
Principal constituent: Anethole (80-90%) 
Solubility: 1 part in 3-5 parts of 90% alcohol. 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. "ANISE, ANISEED. The dried 
fruit of Pimpinella anisum L. It contains not more than 
9 per cent of total ash, nor more than 1.5 per cent of ash 
insoluble in hydrochloric acid." 



* The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22). 



CHAPTER 14 

CARAWAY SEED 

Plant: Carum carvi L. 

Family: Umbelli ferae. 

Nativity and Cultivation: Native to Europe and cultivated in 
Russia, Syria, Poland, Bulgaria, Rumania, Holland, Mo- 
rocco, Canada and United States of America. 




*m y 



Caraway Seed 



Description: A biennial, umbelliferous herbacious plant of the 
parsley family. 

Properties of the Seed: Color: Light to dark brown with pale- 
colored, somewhat yellowish ridges. 

Size and Shape: Variable in length from about 5/32 to ^4 
of an inch, curved and tapered at each end. 
Appearance : Separate mericarps, clean and free from stalk 

90 



Caraway Seed 91 

ends.* Hard and somewhat sharp to the touch. Five longi- 
tudinal ridges are clearly visible. 

Aroma and Taste: Characteristic and agreeable odor and an 
aromatic, pleasant, warm, somewhat sharp taste. 
Caraway seed is available whole or ground. There are approxi- 
mately 6,500 to 9,400 mericarps in one ounce and approximately 
104,000 to 150,400 in one pound, according to the source of seed. 




Caraway Seed x?/ 2 

Uses : Caraway seed is widely employed for flavoring bread, bis- 
cuits and cakes. Europeans use it for flavoring cheese and 
sauerkraut. It is an ingredient of pork sausage seasoning 
and some manufacturers include it in the formula for whole 
mixed pickling spice. The Dutch variety has been used, for 
many years, in the production of Kummel, a potent alcholic 
cordial. 

Adulteration: Whole caraway is subject to adulteration with 
exhausted seeds, excess stems and earth. The ground product 
is sometimes found adulterated with cheaper seeds of similar 
flavor, farinaceous products or worthless vegetable seeds. 

Grinding: Caraway seeds should be ground fine enough to pass 
through a mesh 54 screen. 



* Known as "dewhiskered" in the spice trade. 



92 The Spice Handbook 

Packing: Dutch, Russian and Spanish caraway seed is packed 
in bags of 110 pounds and Syrian is packed in bags of 150 
or 160 pounds. 

Essential Oil: Caraway yields from 3 to 7% of volatile oil hav- 
ing the following properties : * 
Specific gravity at 15°C: 0.907-0.920 
Optical. rotation at 20°C. : +70 to +82° 
(usually +75 to +78°) 
Refractive index at 25°C. : 1.484-1.497 
Principal constituent: Carvone (50-60%). 
Solubility: 1 part in 10 parts of 80% alcohol. 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. "CARAWAY, CARAWAY SEED. 
The dried fruit of Carum Carvi L. It contains not more than 
8 per cent of total ash, nor more than 1.5 per cent of ash 
insoluble in hydrochloric acid." 



* The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22), 



CHAPTER 15 

CARDAMOM SEED 

Plant: Elettaria cardamomum Maton. 
Family : Zingiberaceae. 




Top : Green Cardamoms 
Bottom : Bleached Bold Cardamoms 

(About ^rd Natural Size) 

Nativity and Cultivation: Native to India and cultivated in 
India (Malabar, Mangalore, Mysore) and Ceylon. It is also 
cultivated to some extent in Central America. 
Description : A perennial herb of the ginger family. 

The dried cardamom fruit consists of a tough capsule contain- 

93 



94 



The Spice Handbook 




Cardamom Seeds 

(The Seeds Contained in the Capsule) One Ssed Cut Transversely 






Cardamom Seed 

Bleached Medium Bold 

ing small irregular shaped seeds which vary in number from 
about eight to sixteen. 



Cardamon Seed 95 

Properties of the Dried Unopened Fruit: Type "Medium 
Bold": Color: Creamy white. The unbleached or green 
cardamoms are greenish-brown in color. 
Size and Shape: Vary in length from 5/16 to 9/16 of an 
inch. The breadth is fairly constant being about 5/16 of 
an inch at the widest part of the fruit. Shape, three-sided 
and oval-oblong. 

Appearance: Clean and longitudinally wrinkled; fairly 
smooth to the touch. The capsule is of a very tough, fibrous 
and paper-like nature. 

Aroma and Taste: The unopened fruits have an aromatic 
odor. The capsule has a slight aromatic taste. 
Properties of the Seed: Color: Varies from light reddish-brown 
to dark reddish-brown. 

Size and Shape: About 3/32 of an inch long and 1/16 of an 
inch thick. Shape, angular and irregular. 
Appearance: Covered with a thin membrane, wrinkled and 
hard to the touch. 

Aroma and Taste: Pleasant, aromatic odor and a characteris- 
tic, warm, slightly pungent, highly aromatic taste. 
Cardamoms are available whole bleached, whole semi-bleached, 
whole green, decorticated (i.e., capsule removed) and ground. 
Whole cardamoms are marketed as extra superior bleached, 
superior bleached, bold bleached, medium bold bleached, bold 
green, fair average quality (FAQ) green, average quality (AQ) 
green. There are approximately 198 medium bold bleached car- 
damoms to one ounce and approximately 3,168 to one pound. 
Uses: Ground cardamom is employed for flavoring bread, cakes 
and cookies. Cardamom is an ingredient of curry powder 
and of a number of ground spice seasonings including liver 
sausage, pork sausage and hamburg seasoning. Cardamoms 
are included in the formula for whole mixed pickling spice 
by some manufacturers. 
Grinding: Cardamoms should be ground fine enough to pass 

through a mesh 54 screen. 
Packing: Cardamoms are packed in cases of 112 pounds. 



96 The Spice Handbook 

Essential Oil: Cardamom yields from 3.5 to 8 per cent of vola- 
tile oil having the following properties : * 
Specific gravity at 15°C: 0.922-0.950 
Optical rotation at 20°C. : +22 to +40° 
Refractive index at 20°C. : 1.460-1.470 
Solubility: 1 part in 2-5 parts of 70% alcohol. 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. "CARDAMOM. The dried, nearly 
ripe fruit of Elettaria cardamomum Maton." 

"CARDAMOM SEED. The dried seed of cardamom. 
It contains not more than 8 per cent of total ash, nor more 
than 3 per cent of ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid." 



* The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22). 



CHAPTER 16 

CELERY SEED 

Plant: Apium graveolens L. 

Family: Umbelli ferae. 

Nativity and Cultivation : Native to Southern Europe and culti- 
vated in France, Holland, Great Britian, India and United 
States of America. 




Celery Seed 

Description: A biennial herbaceous plant of the parsley family. 

Properties of the Seed: Color: Varies from light brown to 
brown, with pale colored ridges. 

Size and Shape: From 3/64 to 1/16 of an inch in length. 
The separated mericarps are flat to slightly concave on the 
inner surface and convex on the dorsal surface. 
Appearance: Small; united or separate mericarps, some with 
stalk ends attached. Numerous small pieces of stalk present 
with the seed. The ridges of each mericarp are clearly visi- 

97 



98 The Spice Handbook 

ble, and when examined under the low power of the mi- 
croscope are found to be five in number and very prominent. 
Aroma and Taste: The well-known, characteristic, celery 
aroma and taste, this last being warm and slightly bitter. 
Celery seed is available whole or ground. There are approxi- 
mately 47,550 whole, united mericarps to one ounce and approxi- 
mately 760,800 to one pound. 




Celery Seed x7^ 

Uses: Employed in the kitchen as a substitute for fresh celery 
and used to flavor soups, salads, tomato juice, spreads, 
sauces, etc. It is also used in pickling and in the manufacture 
of CELERY SALT which is a mixture of ground celery 
seed and free-running table salt. 

Adulteration: Whole celery seed is subject to adulteration by 
the addition of exhausted, or spent, seeds; excess stems; 
earth ; etc. The ground product is sometimes found adulter- 
ated with farinaceous products, linseed meal, worthless vege- 
table seeds, etc. 

Grinding: Celery seed should be ground fine enough to pass 
through a mesh 54 screen. 

Packing: Indian celery seed is packed in bags of 130 pounds and 
the French seed is packed in bags of 220 pounds. 



Celery Seed 99 

Essential Oil: Celery seed yields from 2.5 to 3% of essential 
oil having the following properties : * 
Specific gravity at 15°C: 0.860-0.895 
Optical rotation at 20°C. : +60 to +80° 
Refractive index at 20 °C. : 1.479-1.486 
Solubility : 1 part in 10 parts of 90% alcohol. 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. "CELERY SEED. The dried fruit 
of Celeri graveolens (L) Britton (Apium graveolens L.). 
It contains not more than 10 per cent of total ash, nor more 
than 2 per cent of ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid." 



* The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22). 



CHAPTER 17 

CORIANDER SEED 

Plant: Coriandrum sativum L. 

Family: Umbelli ferae. 

Nativity and Cultivation: Native to Europe and cultivated in 




Coriander Seed 

North Africa (Morocco), Russia, Asia Minor, India, South 
America, and to a limited extent in the United States of 
America. 
Description : An annual umbelliferous herb of the parsley family, 
growing to about 2 feet. The lower leaves are broad and 
deeply segmented or lobed while the leaves of the upper 
part of the plant are composed of very narrow linear seg- 
ments. The plant bears umbels of very small pinkish flowers. 
The herb gives off a very pronounced odor which some think 
offensive. The odor must have been offensive to the ancient 
Greeks for they compared it to that of a bedbug. The word 
coriander (Greek Koriandron) is derived from the Greek 

100 



Coriander' Seed 



101 



word Koris meaning a bedbug. The seeds are free of any 
such odor, having, on the contrary, a fragrant scent. 




Coriander Seed x 7^ 

Note Straight and Wavy Ridges 

Properties of the Seed: Color: Yellowish-brown. 

Size and Shape: Varies in size from y$ to 3/16 of an inch 

in diameter. Shape, nearly globular. 

Appearance: United mericarps. The seed easily breaks apart, 




Coriander Seed x 7 J /2 
Specially Illuminated to Show Straight and Wavy Ridges 



102 The Spice Handbook 

however, and a handful of the seed will show a number of 
single or separate mericarps. The seed is at once recognized 
by its straight and wavy ridges. Each mericarp has four, 
straight, primary ridges and five, less distinct, wavy, second- 



f m 




Umbels of Coriander 



ary ridges. Five calyx teeth and a short conical style com- 
plete the apex of the seed. An occasional seed will be noticed 
with a short length of stalk attached. 

Aroma and Taste: A slight, fragrant odor and a pleasant, 
aromatic taste. 
Coriander seed is available whole or ground. There are ap- 
proximately 1,984 to 2,778 whole, united mericarps to one ounce 
and approximately 31,744 to 44,448 to one pound depending upon 
source of seed. 

Uses: Coriander is used for flavoring pastry, cookies, buns and 
cakes. The whole seed is an important ingredient of whole 
mixed pickling spice. The ground seed is included in for- 
mulae for curry powder and Hindu spice, pork sausage, 
frankfurter and other seasonings. It is also used as an in- 



Coriander Seed 103 

gredient in manufacture of tobacco products. Practically 
all of the U. S. crop, centering in Kentucky, is used in flavor- 
ing liquors, mainly gin. 

Grinding: Coriander seed should be ground fine enough to pass 
through a mesh 54 screen. 

Packing : Indian coriander seed is packed in bags weighing from 
83 to 93 pounds net. Morocco seed is packed in bags of 1 10 
pounds. 

Essential Oil: Coriander seed yields from 0.1 to 1% of volatile 
oil having the following properties : * 
Specific gravity at 15°C: 0.870-0.885 
Optical rotation at 20° C. : +7 to +14° 
Refractive index at 20°C. : 1.463-1.476 
Solubility: 1 part in 3 parts of 70% alcohol. 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. "CORIANDER SEED. The dried 
fruit of Coriandrum sativum L. It contains not more than 
7 per cent of total ash, nor more than 1.5 per cent of ash 
insoluble in hydrochloric acid." 

* The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22). 



CHAPTER 18 

CUMIN SEED 

Plant: Cuminum cyminum L. 

Family: Umbelli ferae. 

Nativity and Cultivation: Native to Egypt and the Mediter- 
ranean region. Cultivated in Morocco, Sicily, Malta, Cyprus, 
Egypt, Iran and India. 




mm 1 



Cumin Seed 

Description: An annual umbelliferous plant of the parsley family. 
Properties of the Seed: Color: Yellowish-brown. 

Size and Shape: The separate mericarps vary from % to l /\ 

of an inch in length. Shape, oval, elongated; dorsal surface 

convex. 

Appearance: United and separate mericarps, ridged, with 

104 



Cumin Seed 105 




Cumin Seed x?/ 2 
Note Secondary Hairy Ridges 

many seeds having a short length of stem attached. Ex- 
amination with a good hand lens or the low power of the 
microscope reveals five clean, prominent, longitudinal, pri- 
mary ridges and four less distinct, hairy, secondary ridges. 
Aroma and Taste: A strong, distinctive, odor resembling 
caraway. Taste, warm and aromatic. 
Cumin seed is available whole or ground. There are approxi- 
mately 10,052 separate mericarps to one ounce and approximately 
160,832 to one pound. 

Uses : The culinary uses for cumin seed include the flavoring of 
bread, soups, rice and meat dishes. It is employed in the 
manufacture of certain prepared meats, pickles and cheese. 
Cumin seed is an ingredient of curry powder, chilli powder, 
Hindu spice, pungent mango pickles and green mango 
chutney. 
Grinding: Cumin seed should be ground fine enough to pass 

through a mesh 54 screen. 
Packing: Morocco and Cyprus cumin seed is packed in bags of 
110 pounds. Indian cumin seed is packed in bags of 120 and 
135 pounds. 



106 The Spice Handbook 

Essential Oil: Cumin seed yields from 2.5 to 4.5% of volatile 
oil having the following properties : * 
Specific gravity at 15°C. : 0.900-0.930 
Optical rotation at 20°C. : +3 to +8° 
Refractive index at 20°C. : 1.494-1.510 
Principal constituent: Cuminol (20-35%) 
Solubility: 1 part in 3 parts of 80% alcohol. 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. "CUMIN SEED. The dried fruit 
of Cuminum cyminum L. It contains not more than 9.5 
per cent of total ash, not more than 1.5 per cent of ash 
in soluble in hydrochloric acid, nor more than 5 per cent 
of harmless foreign matter." 



* The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22), 



CHAPTER 19 

DILL SEED 

Plant: Anethum graveolens L. 

Family: Umbelli ferae. 

Nativity and Cultivation: Native to Europe and cultivated in 

many parts of that continent, England, India and the United 

States of America. 




Dill Seed 

Description: An herbaceous umbelliferous annual of the parsley 
family. The plant reaches a height of 3 or 4 feet and has 
finely divided light green leaves and bears compound umbels 
of small yellow flowers. All parts of the plant are aromatic. 
It is grown in many home gardens, being easily cultivated. 

Properties of the Seed: Color: Light brown. 

Size and Shape: Varies in size from 3/32 to 3/16 of an 
inch in length and 1/16 to J /s of an inch in width. Shape, 
oval. 

107 



108 The Spice Handbook 

Appearance: United and separate mericarps. The mericarp 
is concave on the inner surface, convex and ridged on the 
dorsal surface. The dorsal ridges are three in number, longi- 
tudinal and quite prominent. The lateral ridges are two in 
number and form thin wing-like expansions. These lateral 
ridges are a pale yellowish-brown color. 




Dill Seed x 7y 2 
Note Broad Lateral Ridges 

Aroma and Taste: An aromatic odor faintly resembling that 
of caraway and a warm, aromatic, slightly sharp taste akin 
to caraway. 
Dill seed is available whole or ground. There are approximately 

11,400 separate mericarps to one ounce and approximately 182,- 

400 to one pound. 

Uses: Dill seed is employed in the kitchen for flavoring soups, 
salads, meat and fish sauces, meat dishes, etc. It is used by 
housewife and manufacturer alike for flavoring dill pickles. 
The ground seed is a constituent of many seasoning prepara- 
tions including' frankfurter, Bologna, liverwurst, summer 
sausage and pork sausage seasoning. Due to high costs of 
caraway seed, it was used largely, during world war I and 
is being used during world war II, as a substitute for cara- 
way. 



Dill Seed 109 

Grinding : Dill seed should be ground fine enough to pass through 

a mesh 54 screen. 
Packing: Dill seed is packed in bags of 120 and 140 pounds. 
Essential Oil: Dill seed yields from 2.5 to 4% of volatile oil 

having the following properties : * 

Specific gravity at 15°C. : 0.895-0.918 

Optical rotation at 20°C. : +70 to +82° 

Refractive index at 25°C. : 1.477-1.490 

Principal constituent: Carvone (30—60%) , 

Solubility : 1 in 3 parts of 90% alcohol. 
Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. "DILL SEED. The dried fruit of 

Anethum graveolens L. It contains not more than 10 per 

cent of total ash, nor more than 3 per cent of ash insoluble 

in hydrochloric acid." 

* The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22). 



CHAPTER 20 

FENNEL SEED 



Plant: Foeniculum vulgare Miller. 
Family: Umbelli ferae. 




Fennel Seed 

Nativity and Cultivation: Native to Europe and cultivated in 
Germany, Rumania, Italy, France, North Africa, Russia, 
Syria, India and Japan. 

Description: A biennial or perennial umbelliferous herb of the 
parsley family. The fruits (or seeds), leaves and stems are 
all aromatic. The plant has finely divided green leaves made 
up of numerous thread-like segments and bears umbels of 
small yellow flowers. It is easily grown in the garden. 

Properties of the Seed: Color: Greenish or yellowish-brown. 
Size and Shape: Varies from 5/32 to 5/16 of an inch in 
length. Shape, oblong oval, straight or slightly curved. 
Appearance : Bold, united mericarps with prominent ridges. 
Many seeds have a short length of stem attached. Separate 

110 



Fennel Seed 



111 



mericarps are flat on the inner surface and convex on the 
dorsal surface. Each mericarp has five distinct, yellowish, 
longitudinal ribs or ridges. 




Finely Divided Leaves of Fennel 



Aroma and Taste: Pleasant, aromatic odor and taste 
strongly resembling that of aniseed. 
Fennel is available whole or ground. There are approximately 

3,118 whole, united mericarps to one ounce and approximately 

49,888 to one pound. 

Uses: The culinary uses for fennel seed include the flavoring 
of soups, fish dishes and sauces. It is extensively used by 
Italians in roasting pork. It is employed by bakers for flavor- 
ing bread, rolls and pastries. It is also used in the manu- 
facture of sweet pickles. 

Grinding: Fennel seed should be ground fine enough to pass 
through a mesh 54 screen. 



112 The Spice Handbook 

Packing: Indian fennel seed is packed in bags of 112 pounds. 
Morocco fennel seed is packed in bags of 110 pounds. 




Fennel Seed x7^ 

Essential Oil: Fennel seed yields from 4 to 6% of volatile oil 
having the following properties : * 
Specific gravity at 15°C: 0.960-0.990 
Optical rotation at 20°C. : +6 to +24° 
Refractive index at 20°C. : 1.525-1.550 
Principal constituent : Anethol ( 50-60% ) 
Solubility: 1 part in 5-8 parts of 80% alcohol. 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. "FENNEL SEED. The dried fruit 
of cultivated varieties of Foeniculum vulgare Hill. It con- 
tains not more than 9 per cent of total ash nor more than 
2 per cent of ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid." 



* The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22). 



CHAPTER 21 

FENUGREEK 

Plant: Trigonella foenum-graecum L. 
Family: Leguminosae. 




Fenugreek Seed 

Nativity and Cultivation : Native to Southern Europe and culti- 
vated in France, Germany, Morocco, Egypt, India and 
United States of America. 

Description: An annual leguminous herb of the pea family. 

Properties of the Seed: Color: Brownish-yellow. 

Size and Shape: Varies in length from 3/32 to 3/16 of an 
inch and in breadth from 5/64 to J /$ of an inch. Shape, ob- 
long-rhomboidal. 

Appearance : Clean, sound seeds, each marked with a deep 
furrow running obliquely from one side. The seeds are 

113 



114 The Spice Handbook 

very hard and when grasped with fingers and thumb feel 
like very small pebbles. 

Aroma and Taste: The odor is strong, pleasant and reminis- 
cent of that of burnt sugar. The taste is decidely farinaceous 
and slightly bitter. 
Fenugreek seeds are available whole or ground. There are ap- 
proximately 2,551 whole seeds to one ounce and approximately 
40,816 to one pound. 




Fenugreek Seed x 7 l / 2 
Note Deep Furrow 

Uses: Fenugreek is employed in the manufacture of imitation 
maple extract, pungent mango pickle and green mango chut- 
ney. It is an ingredient of some formulae for curry powder. 
Fenugreek is also used in stock foods, in veterinary medicinal 
preparations, and for planting as a cover crop in citrus fruit 
areas. 

Grinding : Fenugreek seed should be ground fine enough to pass 
through a mesh 54 screen. 

Packing: Indian fenugreek seed is packed in bags of 100 and 
200 pounds. Morocco fenugreek seed is packed in bags of 
220 pounds. 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 
F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. No reference. 






CHAPTER 22 

MUSTARD 

(a) White (Commonly Called Yellow) Mustard Seed 

Plant: Sinapis alba L. 
Family: Cruciferae. 




Yellow (White) Mustard Seed 

Nativity and Cultivation: Native to Europe and Southwestern 
Asia and cultivated in Holland, Germany, Austria, Italy and 
other parts of Europe, India, North Africa, England, Can- 
ada and United States of America. In South America, black 
mustard is produced in Chile. 

Description: An annual herbaceous plant of the mustard family. 
The leaves are deep green, lobed and hairy. The plant bears 
clusters of small yellow flowers with four petals resembling 
a cross in arrangement. The cross-like arrangement of the 

115 



116 The Spice Handbook 

petals is responsible for the family name cruci ferae. The 
seeds are borne in a bristly pod, with a long flattish beak, 
known botanically as a silique. The silique is composed of 




Illustrating the Membrane Which Separates the Two Carpels 
of the White Mustard Silique x 7y 2 

two carpels which are separated by a fine membrane. The 
pods of black mustard are smooth, and narrower than those 
of white mustard and have a much shorter and more slender 
beak. Mustard is easily grown in the garden. 




White Mustard Seed x 7y 2 
Resting in Section of Carpel 



Mustard 117 

Properties of the Seed: Color: Yellowish. 

Size and Shape: Vary in size from 3/64 to 3/32 of an inch 

in diameter. Shape, roughly globular. 

Appearance: Small, round, clean-looking seeds; hard to the 

touch. When examined microscopically, the seed is seen to 

be minutely pitted. 

Aroma and Taste: The whole seeds yield no perceptible odor 

and no odor results from crushing them in the presence of 

water (see black mustard seed). Taste, pungent. 

(b) Black (Commonly Called Brown-) Mustard Seed 

Plant: Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. 

Family : 

Nativity and Cultivation: kee under Sinapis alba. 

Description: 

Properties of the Seed: Color: Dark reddish-brown. 

Size and Shape: Vary in size from 3/64 to 1/16 of an inch 
in diameter. Shape, roughly globular. 

Appearance: Small, round, clean-looking seeds. When ex- 
amined microscopically, the seed is seen to be minutely pitted. 
Aroma and Taste: The whole seeds yield no perceptible odor 
but when they are crushed in a mortar in the presence of a 
little water a sharp, piercing, irritating" odor is given off 
(due to the presence of allyl isothiocyanate). Taste, pungent. 

(c) Mustard (Mustard Flour or Ground Mustard) 

Ground mustard or mustard flour is the product obtained by 
crushing, grinding' and sifting the whole mustard seeds. The 
seeds are crushed to facilitate the removal of the hulls and a 
portion of the fixed oil. The remaining mustard cake is dried, 
ground and sifted to a fine powder. Pure ground mustard is 
a pale yellow in color. Ground mustard is graded to distinguish 
the various qualities, e.g., double superfine (DSF), extra fine 
(EF), pure No. 1, and pure No. 2. 

Adulteration: Common adulterants of mustard seed are the 
worthless seeds of other species of mustard plants and weed 



118 The Spice Handbook 

seeds. Ground mustard is often found adulterated with 
wheat flour and turmeric. 




Mustard Seed x 7y 2 

Left: White (or Yellow) 
Right: Black (or Brown) 

Uses: Ground mustard is a widely used condiment and is em- 
ployed to add flavor and piquancy to meats of all kinds. It 
is used in the preparation of mustard pickles. Mustard 
powder is employed in the manufacture of "prepared" 
mustard, a paste product containing mustard flour, vinegar, 
spices, etc., and is well known to the public. Yellow mustard 
seed is a constituent of whole mixed pickling spice. Brown 
mustard is extensively used, medicinally, in the preparations 
known as "mustard plasters." 
There are approximately 5,131 whole white mustard seeds to 

one ounce and approximately 82,096 to one pound and there are 

approximately 12,740 whole black mustard seeds to one ounce 

and approximately 203,840 to one pound. 

Packing: Mustard seed is packed in bags of 100, 150, 200 and 
224 pounds depending upon place of origin. Pure ground 
mustard is packed in barrels of 220 pounds and in bags of 
150 and 75 pounds. 

Starch: Ground mustard should be negative to the ordinary 
iodine test for starch. 



Mustard 119 

Essential Oil: Black mustard seed (B nigra) yields 0.5 to 1% 
of volatile oil having the following properties : * 
Specific gravity at 15°C: 1.014-1.032 
Optical rotation : Inactive 
Refractive index at 25°C. : 1.525-1.535 
Principal constituent: Allyl isothiocyanate (90-95%). 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. "Mustard, Mustard 
Flour, Ground Mustard shall be the powder made from 
mustard seed with the hulls largely removed and with or 
without the removal of a portion of the fixed oil. It shall 
not contain more than one and five-tenths (1.5) per cent 
of mustard starch or more than six (6) per cent of total 
ash." 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. "MUSTARD SEED. The seed of 
Sinapis alba L. (white mustard), Brassica nigra (L.) Koch 
(black mustard), B. juncea (L.) Cosson, or varieties or 
closely related species of the types of B. nigra and B. juncea. 
Sinapis alba (white mustard) contains no appreciable amount 
of volatile oil. It contains not more than 5 per cent of total 
ash nor more than 1.5 per cent of ash insoluble in hydro- 
chloric acid. 

Brassica nigra (black mustard) and B. juncea yield 0.6 
per cent of volatile mustard oil (calculated as allyl 
isothiocyanate). The varieties and species closely related 
to the types of B. nigra and B. juncea yield not less than 
0.6 per cent of volatile mustard oil, similar in character and 
composition to the volatile oils yielded by B. nigra and 
B. juncea. These mustard seeds contain not more than 
5 per cent of total ash, nor more than 1.5 per cent of ash 
insoluble in hydrochloric acid. 

GROUND MUSTARD SEED, MUSTARD MEAL. Un- 
bolted, ground mustard seed, conforming to the standards 
for mustard seed. 

MUSTARD CAKE. Ground mustard seed, mustard meal, 
from which a portion of fixed oil has been removed. 



The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22). 



120 The Spice Handbook 

MUSTARD FLOUR, GROUND MUSTARD, 'MUS- 
TARD.' The powder made from mustard seed with the hulls 
largely removed and with or without the removal of a portion 
of the fixed oil. It contains not more than 1.5 per cent of 
starch, nor more than 6 per cent of total ash. 




Wheat Starch x 250 




Rice Starch x 250 



Mustard 



121 



PREPARED MUSTARD. A paste composed of a mixture 
of ground mustard seed and/or mustard flour and/or mus- 
tard cake, with salt, a vinegar, and with or without sugar 
and/or dextrose, spices, or other condiments. In the fat-, 
salt-, and sugar-free solids it contains not more than 24 
per cent of carbohydrates, not more than 12 per cent of crude 
fiber, nor less than 5.6 per cent of nitrogen, the carbohy- 
drates being calculated as starch." 




Corn Starch x 250 



CHAPTER 23 

POPPYSEED 

Plant: Papaver somniferum L. 

Family: Papaveraceae. 

Nativity and Cultivation : Indigenous to Asia and cultivated 
in France, Poland, Holland, Germany, Hungary, India, 
Turkey, England, Canada, and United States of America. 




Blue Poppy Seed 

Description: An annual herbaceous plant of the poppy family. 
Poppy seed is available white or blue. The blue seed of com- 
merce may be the genuine blue poppy seed or it may be the 
white poppy seed artificially colored blue. The dye used to 
color white poppy seed is water soluble and its presence is 

122 



Poppy Seed 123 

readily discovered by adding 5 or 10 ml. of water to a few 
seeds held in a test tube. For our purpose, the genuine blue 
seed of commerce is described but it must not be thought 
that the white seed is in any way inferior. It is every bit 
as good but consumers prefer the colored seed because it is 
largely employed for decorating purposes. Indian white 
poppy has been used in a large way since the start of world 
war II, both straight and mixed with the blue. Poppy seeds 
have no narcotic properties. 



* #K • 



Poppy Seed x 7 



72 



Properties of the Seed: Color: Actually slate-colored, but con- 
sidered blue by the trade. 

Size and Shape: About 3/64 of an inch in length, and kidney 
shaped. 

Appearance : Small, hard, clean looking seeds. The seeds 
should be studied under the low power of the microscope 
to be fully appreciated. Thus seen, the surface of the seed 
is found to be covered with a beautiful raised-ridge network. 
Aroma and Taste: A slight, pleasant, nut-like odor and an 
agreeable, decidedly nutty taste. 
Poppy seed is available whole, it is not usually ground. There 

are approximately 52,000 seeds to one ounce and approximately 

832,000 to one pound. 

Uses: Poppy seeds are employed by bakers for spreading on 
breads, rolls, cakes and cookies. 

Packing: Turkish, Dutch and Indian poppy seed is packed in bags 
of 110 pounds. 



124 The Spice Handbook 

Essential Oil: Poppy seeds do not contain essential oil but they 
do contain from 50 to 60% of fixed oil which has consider- 
able commercial importance. 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 
F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. No references. 



PART 4 
Herbs 



CHAPTER 24 

SESAME SEED 

Plant: Sesamum indicum L. 
Family: Pedaliaceae. 

Nativity and Cultivation: Native to Asia and cultivated in India, 
Turkey, China and other parts of Asia. 




Sesame Seed 

Description: An annual herbaceous plant of the Sesamum family. 
Properties of the Seed: Color: Creamy-white. 

Size and Shape: Varies from 3/32 to % of an inch in length. 

Shape, oval, compressed, with a small protuberance at one 

end. 

Appearance: Hulled, clean, smooth and shiny seeds, not very 

hard and somewhat slippery to the touch. 

Aroma and Taste: Very faint nutty odor and an agreeable, 

nutty taste. 

127 



128 The Spice Handbook 

Sesame seed is available whole, it is not usually ground. There 
are approximately 12,105 seeds to one ounce and approximately 
193,680 to one pound. 




Sesame Seed x 7y 2 : 

Sesame seed is imported in unhulled and hulled form. This 
last is described above and is the seed generally in demand. The 
properties of the first are similar to those of the second excepting 
color which varies from a grayish-white to black. Sesame seed 
is also known as "Benne" or "Bene" seed. 

Uses : Sesame seed is employed by bakers for use on bread, rolls, 
cookies, biscuits, etc., to improve the taste and impart a nut- 
like flavor. 
Packing: Chinese sesame seed is packed in bags of 200 pounds, 

Indian sesame seed is packed in bags of 170 pounds. 
Essential Oil: Sesame seed does not contain volatile oil but it 
does contain a fixed oil of considerable commercial im- 
portance. 
Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 
F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. No reference. 



CHAPTER 25 

STAR ANISE 

^ 1 

- _.- _ L..HM 

Star Anise 

Plant: lllicium verum Hook. 

Family: Magnoliaceae. 

Nativity and Cultivation : Indigenous to Southeastern Asia and 
cultivated in China. 

Description: A small evergreen tree of the magnolia family. 

Properties of the Dried Fruit: Color: Reddish-brown. 

Size and Shape: Varies from about 1 to 1^4 inches measured 
from tip of one carpel to tip of carpel directly opposite. In- 
dividual carpels vary from about 3^ to % of an inch in 
length. Star shaped as the name implies but many fruits 
are quite irregular. 

Appearance : Eight carpels joined to short central peduncle; 
hard-looking, wrinkled, woody appearance. The carpels are 
laterally broad at stalk end, bellied and taper to a point. 
Individual carpels break off quite easily which accounts for 

129 



130 The Spice Handbook 

a number of the fruits in any sample having less than eight 
carpels. Each carpel contains a single, glossy, oval, com- 
pressed seed. The carpels are hard, rigid and not easily 
opened. The seeds are very brittle. 

Aroma and Taste: The carpels have a pleasant, anise-like 
odor and an agreeable, aromatic, sweet, anise-like taste; the 
seeds to a much lesser extent. 
Star anise is available whole. It is not usually ground. There 
are approximately 12 whole dried fruits to one ounce and ap- 
proximately 192 to one pound. 

Uses: Star anise is used by confectioners for flavoring purposes. 
It is also employed to a limited extent for pickling purposes. 
Chinese people say that one or two carpels added to a chicken 
which is to be roasted improves the flavor tremendously. It 
is used as a flavor in cough drops and in the production of 
absinthe. 
Packing: Star anise is packed in bags of 112 pounds. It is also 

packed in cases. 
Essential Oil: Star anise yields 3% of volatile oil having the 
following properties : * 
Specific gravity at 20°C. : 0.975-0.990 
Optical rotation at 20° C. : -2 to +1° 
Refractive index at 25°C: 1.552-1.558 
Solubility: 1 part in 3 parts of 90% alcohol. 
Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. "STAR ANISEED. The dried fruit 
of Illicium verum Hook. It contains not more than 5 per 
cent of total ash." 



* The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22). 



CHAPTER 26 

LAUREL LEAVES 




Laurel Leaves 

Laurel leaves are also called bay leaves, no doubt because of 
the fact that Laurus nobilis L. is known as the sweet bay laurel. 
I understand that many years ago, when the pure food law was 
passed in the United States, a regulation was adopted which 
ordered that, because there is, botanically, a bay leaf from which 
bay rum * is derived, the leaves of Laurus nobilis must be de- 
scribed as laurel leaves. Distributors all refer to and invoice them 
as laurel leaves. 
Plant: Laurus nobilis L. 
Family: Lauraceae. 



* "Proper bay rum was the product directly distilled from the leaves of the 
bay tree. The dried leaves were mixed with rum and water, containing a 
little salt, and the whole of the distillate from this collected. Poucher (P. J. 
1924, 112, 186) states that this sort of bay rum is no longer produced." U. S. 
Dispensatory, 23rd Ed. p. 772. 

The bay tree mentioned in the above quotation refers no doubt to Pimenta 
acris (family Myrtaceae), from whose leaves it was said bay oil, officiallv 

131 



132 The Spice Handbook 




Underside of Laurel Leaf x 7y 2 

Magnified to Show Section of Prominent Midrib and Network of Veins 

Nativity and Cultivation: Indigenous to countries bordering on 
the Mediterranean and cultivated in Greece, Spain, Portugal, 
Asia Minor, and Central America (Guatemala). The 
Guatemalan leaves are considered inferior to the other types. 

Description: An evergreen tree or shrub of the laurel family 
with smooth, shiny green leaves. 

Properties of the Leaf: Color: The surface of the leaf is green 
and the underside is pale green and somewhat yellowish in 
color. 

Size and Shape: Variable in size from about 1 to 3 inches 
or more in length and ^ to 1 inch or more in breadth at the 
widest part of the leaf. Shape, elliptical, tapering to a point 
at base and tip of leaf. 

known as oil of Myrcia, was obtained. However, oil of bay is derived from 
the leaves of Pimenta racemosa, and bay rum is manufactured from this oil. 
As far as I can ascertain, the oil is dissolved in alcohol and to this solution 
other aromatic materials are added. 

Another tree commonly referred to as the bay tree or bay laurel tree is 
Umbellularia californica. The leaves of this tree are aromatic and also yield 
a volatile oil on distillation. 

These various bay leaves and bay oils must be distinguished from the leaves 
and oil of the sweet bay laurel, Laurus nobilis L., and to avoid confusion, the 
aromatic leaves of Laurus nobilis L. should always be spoken of as LAUREL 
leaves. 



Laurel Leaves 133 

Appearance : The dried leaf is smooth, somewhat shiny on 
the surface and dull underneath. It is stiff in texture and 
brittle. The midrib and branching side veins stand out 
prominently, especially on the under side of the leaf where 
a network of numerous small veins is also clearly visible. 
The edge of the leaf is slightly wavy; undulate. 
Aroma and Taste: Laurel leaves have a pleasant odor but 
they must be crushed to appreciate the delicate, aromatic 
fragrance which they possess. The taste is aromatic and 
bitter. 
Uses: The culinary uses for laurel leaves are numerous, including 
the flavoring of soups, stews, meat and game dishes, fish 
dishes and sauces. They are employed in the manufacture 
of pickles and are an important constituent of whole mixed 
pickling spice. Laurel leaves are available whole or cracked. 
They are not usually ground. 
Packing: Laurel leaves are packed in bags of 55 and 110 pounds 

net weight. 
Essential Oil: According to Parry,* laurel leaves yield 1 to 3% 
of volatile oil having the following properties : 
Specific gravity: 0.915-0.930 (occasionally higher) 
Optical rotation: —15 to — 22° 
Refractive index: 1.4670-1.4775 
According to The Chemists' Year Book, 1944, the laurel leaf 
(L. nobilis) yields from 1 to 3% of volatile oil having the follow- 
ing properties : 

Specific gravity at 15°C. : 0.915-0.936 
Optical rotation at 20°C. : -15 to -22° 
Principal constituent: Cineol (25-50%) 
Solubility: 1 part in 3 parts of 80% alcohol. 
Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. "BAY LEAVES. The dried leaves 
of Laurus nobilis L." 



* Ernest J. Parry, Parry's Cyclopedia of Perfumery, vol. 1, p. 376. 



CHAPTER 27 

MARJORAM 




• ' 



TT- 



Dried Herbs 

Top Left: Savory, Whole 
Top Right : Thyme, Whole 
Bottom Left: Marjoram, Whole 
Bottom Right : Origanum, Rubbed 

Plant: Maiorana hortensis M. 

Family: Labiatae. 

Nativity and Cultivation : Native to Western Asia and the Medi- 
terranean region and cultivated in France, Germany, 
Hungary, Spain, Portugal, England, North Africa, South 
and North America. 

134 



Marjoram 135 



9 






■ " , .. 


i 




(p.' 



Marjoram x 7*^ 
Note Growth of Small Hairs 

Description: A perennnial herb of the mint family, small and 
delightfully fragrant. It is easily grown in the garden. 

Properties of the Dried Herb : Color: Light green with a slight 
grayish tinge. 

Appearance : Dried, whole and broken leaves. The whole 
leaves are small and elliptical. When examined under the 
low power of the microscope many dot-size oil glands will 
be observed in the leaf as well as a growth of numerous, 
downy, whitish hairs. These hairs are found on both sides 
of the leaf. 

Aroma and Taste: The odor is pleasant and aromatic. The 
French marjoram is especially fragrant. The taste is warm, 
aromatic, slightly sharp, bitterish and somewhat camphora- 
ceous. 
Marjoram is available whole or ground. 

Uses: The culinary uses for marjoram include the flavoring of 
soups, stews, dressings, salads, tgg and vegetable dishes, 
cheese, etc. It is an ingredient of poultry dressing and is 
employed in the seasoning of a number of fancy meats and 
sausages by industrial manufacturers of such foodstuffs. 



136 



The Spice Handbook 



Grinding: Marjoram should be ground fine enough to pass 
through a mesh 38 to 48 screen. 

Packing: French marjoram is packed in bales of 110 pounds, 
English marjoram in bags of 224 pounds and Chilean mar- 
joram in bags of approximately 50 pounds. 

Essential Oil: Marjoram yields from 0.3 to 0.9% of volatile 
oil having the following properties : * 
Specific gravity at 15°C: 0.890-0.910 
Optical rotation at 20°C. : +15 to +18° 
Refractive index at 20° C, : 1.472-1.478 
Solubility: 1 part in 3 parts of 80% alcohol. 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. "MARJORAM, LEAF MARJO- 
RAM. The dried leaves, with or without a small proportion 
of the flowering tops, of Marjoram hortensis Moench. It 
contains not more than 16 per cent of total ash, not more 
than 4.5 per cent of ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid, nor 
more than 10 per cent of stems and harmless foreign ma- 
terial. 



* The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22) 



CHAPTER 28 

MINT 




Dried Mint 

As Received in Commerce About Half Natural Size 

There are a number of species of the genus Mentha and many 
varieties. For our purpose, it is only necessary to describe the 
following members because they alone are important to the spice 
trade. 
Plant: Mentha spicata L. (Spearmint) and Mentha piperita 

L. (Peppermint). 
Family: Labiatae. 
Nativity and Cultivation: Native to Europe and Asia and grown 

more or less in all parts of Europe, in some parts of Asia, 

England and North and South America. 

137 



138 The Spice Handbook 

Description: Perennial herbs. 

Properties of the Dried Herb: (Note: The properties of the 
two species are so much alike, they need not be described 
separately for our purpose.) 
Color: Dark green. 

Appearance : Dried, crumpled, shriveled, whole and broken 
leaves with leaf-stalks attached to whole leaves or parts of 
whole leaves. Whole leaves are ovate-oblong to ovate- 
lanceolate in shape. 

Aroma and Taste: Strong, sweetish, characteristic odor and 
a warm, pleasant, aromatic, pungent taste, with a cooling 
after-taste. 
Mint is available whole, rubbed or pulverized. 

Uses: Mint is used in the kitchen for flavoring meat and fish 
sauces, soups and stews. Mint sauce with lamb is a great 
favorite. It is also employed for flavoring beverages, mint 
jelly, vinegar, teas, etc. 

Grinding: Mint should be ground fine enough to pass through 
a mesh 38 to 48 screen. 

Packing: Mint is packed in bales of approximately 90, 125, 
166%, 200, 225, and 250 pounds. 

Essential Oil: Spearmint (M. spicata) fresh herb yields 0.3% 
of volatile oil having - the following properties : * 
Specific gravity at 15°C. : 0.920-0.940 
Optical rotation at 20°C. : -30 to -52° 
Refractive index at 25°C. : 1.480-1.489 Q 

Principal constituent: Carvone (35-66%) 
Solubility: 1 part in 1-1.5 parts of 80% alcohol. 
Peppermint (M. piperita) English, yields 0.4 to 1% of 
volatile oil having the following properties : * 
Specific gravity at 15°C. : 0.900-0.910 
Optical rotation at 20°C. : -22 to -33° 
Refractive index at 20°C. : 1.460-1.465 
Solubility: 1 part in 3-5 parts of 70% alcohol. 






* The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22). 



Mint 139 

Peppermint (M. piperita) American, yields 0.1 to 1% of 
volatile oil having the following properties : * 
Specific gravity at 20°C. : 0.900-0.920 
Optical rotation at 20°C. : -18 to -33° 
Refractive index at 20°C. : 1.458-1.467. 
Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference except 
under flavoring extracts, "Spearmint shall be the leaves and 
flowering tops of Mentha spicata L." 

"Peppermint shall he the leaves and flowering tops of 
Mentha piperita L. or of Mentha arvensis DeC, var. piper- 
ascens, Holmes." 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. No reference, but under flavoring 
extracts (under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic 
Act) "SPEARMINT. The leaves and flowering tops of 
Mentha spicata L." 

"PEPPERMINT. The leaves and flowering tops of Men- 
tha piperita L." 



CHAPTER 29 



ORIGANUM 



Mexican Origanum 

Also Known as Oregano and Mexican Sage 




Tip of Origanum Leaf x 7 l / 2 



Plant: I am unable to botanically classify Mexican origanum. 
The Department of Agriculture of Mexico indicate the herb 
to be Origanum vulgare belonging to the family Labiatae, 
to which also belong the sages.* The U. S. Dispensatory, 
23rd Edition, lists origanum and explains that several related 
species of Labiatae plants have been used as condiments 
under the title of marjoram or origanum, "those most fre- 
quently met with being Majorana hortensis Moench 
(Origanum majorana L.) commonly called sweet marjoram, 
and the Origanum vulgare L." Mexican origanum is prob- 
ably Origanum vulgare L. 



* Correspondence Dept. of Agriculture, Mexico, October, 1943. 

140 



Origanum 141 

The properties of Mexican origanum resemble those of 
the sages rather than those of marjoram. The leaves are 
finely crenate, much larger and coarser than those of mar- 
joram. The aroma has not the fragrance of marjoram but is 
strong and camphoraceous and the taste is more pungent, 
bitter and camphoraceous than that of marjoram. 

Nativity and Cultivation : Probably native to the Mediterranean 
region. Origanum is cultivated in Greece and Italy and grown 
abundantly in Mexico. 

Description : A perennial herb of the mint family. 

Properties of the Dried Herb: Color: Light green. 

Size and Shape: Length of leaves, from about Y\ to y% of 
an inch. Shape, ovate. 

Appearance: Dried, brittle, finely crenate, pubescent, curled 
or folded leaves with short petioles. The midrib and branch- 
ing veins of the leaf are very prominent. 
Aroma and Taste: A strong, aromatic, camphoraceous odor 
and an aromatic, warm, pungent, bitter, camphoraceous 
taste. 
Mexican origanum is available whole, rubbed, or ground. 

Uses: No Mexican kitchen is without origanum, for the Mexi- 
cans contend no other herb communicates such excellent 
aroma and flavor to food. It is used for flavoring soups, 
chile-con-carne, pork and other meat dishes, fish and egg- 
dishes, salads, and in the making of chilli powder. 

Grinding: Origanum should be ground fine enough to pass 
through a mesh 38 to 48 screen. 

Packing: Mexican origanum is packed in sacks of approximately 
45 and 90 pounds. 

Essential Oil: Mexican origanum contains a volatile oil but in 
the absence of a definite classification of this herb no proper 
ties can be given with certainty. 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 
F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. No reference. 



CHAPTER 30 

PARSLEY 




Dried, Rubbed Parsley Leaves x 7y 2 

Plant: Petroselinum sativum, Hoffm. 

Family: Umbelliferae. 

Nativity and Cultivation: Native to Sardinia and the Mediter- 
ranean region. Widely and extensively cultivated. In the 
United States, parsley is extensively cultivated in the state 
of Louisiana. 

Description: A biennial, umbelliferous herbaceous plant with 
rich green compound leaves. The leaflets are 3 lobed with 
each lobe divided into smaller, tooth-like lobes or segments ; 
curly. 

Properties of the Dried Herb: Color: Green. 

Appearance: Dried, shrivelled, curled, broken leaves. 
Aroma and Taste: A pleasant, characteristic, aromatic odor. 
Taste, characteristic and agreeable. 

142 



Parsley 143 

Dried parsley is available in the whole, rubbed, or ground 
form. It is an excellent source of vitamin C, containing 460 mil- 
ligrams * of this important vitamin in 100 grams of the dried 
herb. 




Parsley Leaf 

Uses: The culinary uses for dried parsley include the flavoring 
of soups, meat and fish dishes, sauces and vegetable dishes, 
salads and garnishing. It is an ingredient in some com- 
mercial formulae for meat and poultry seasonings. 

Grinding: Dried parsley should be ground fine enough to pass 
through a mesh 38 to 48 screen. 

Packing: Dried parsley leaves are packed in bales of approxi- 
mately 87 pounds and in tins of 20 pounds each. Two tins 
are packed to the case. 

Essential Oil: Parsley leaves contain a small quantity of volatile 
oil. Guenther ** distilled an oil exclusively from leaf ma- 
terial without the presence of seed. He obtained a yield of 
0.066% volatile oil having the following properties : 
Specific gravity at 15°C. : 0.911 



* Vitamin J T aht,cs of Foods, Miscellaneous Bulletin, No. 505, Department of 
Agriculture, page 18. 

** Dr. Ernest S. Guenther, Chief Research Chemist, Fritzsche Brothers, 
Inc. (reported in Am. Perfumer, 1935). 



144 The Spice Handbook 

Optical rotation: +6°0' 
Refractive index: 1.5029 

A volatile oil is also obtained from the seed of parsley. The 
properties of this oil differ from those of the volatile oil 
obtained from the leaves. The properties of the seed oil, 
as given in The Chemists' Year Book, 1944, are as follows: 
Parsley P. sativum (fruit), yield 2 to 7% 
Specific gravity at 15°C. : 1.040-1.100 
Optical rotation at 20°C. : -5 to -10° 
Refractive index at 20°C. : 1.512-1.525 
Solubility: 1 part in 4-5 parts of 80% alcohol. 
Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 
F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. No reference. 



CHAPTER 31 

ROSEMARY 




Rosemary 

Plant: Rosmarinus officinalis L. 

Family: Labiatae. 

Nativity and Cultivation : Native to Southern Europe and culti- 
vated in Yugoslavia, Spain, Portugal and other parts of 
Europe. It is also cultivated in the United States of 
America. 

Description: A small perennial evergreen shrub of the mint 
family, with numerous linear-shaped leaves folded back at 
the edges. 

Properties of the Dried Herb: Color: Brownish-green. 

Appearance : During the drying process, the margins of the 
leaves which are already naturally folded back become more 
so, giving them a permanent revolute form having the shape 
and appearance of pine needles. The dried leaves vary in 
length from about J4 to 1 inch and are slightly curved and 
brittle. 

145 



146 The Spice Handbook 




Rosemary x 
Showing Apex, Center and Base of Dried Leaf 

Aroma and Taste: Rosemary leaves have a tea-like fragrance 

and, when crushed in the mortar, yield an agreeable and' 

aromatic odor possessing a slight camphoraceous note. The 

taste is aromatic, pungent, somewhat bitter and slightly 

camphoraceous. 
Rosemary is available whole or ground. 
Uses: Rosemary is employed in the kitchen for flavoring soups, 

sauces, vegetable and meat dishes. 
Grinding: Rosemary should be ground fine enough to pass 

through a mesh 38 to 48 screen. 
Packing: Rosemary is packed in bales of 110 pounds to 220 

pounds according to the place of origin. 
Essential Oil: Rosemary leaves yield from 1 to 2% of volatile 

oil having the following properties : * 

Specific gravity at 15°C: 0.895-0.920 

Optical rotation at 20 °C. : —2 to +15° 

Refractive index at 25 °C. : 1.466-1.472 

Solubility: 1 part in 10 parts of 80% alcohol. 
Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. No reference. 



* The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22). 



CHAPTER 32 
SAGE 




Tip of Young Dalmatian Sage Leaf x 7 l / 2 

Plant: Salvia officinalis L. 

Family: Labiatae. 

Nativity and Cultivation : Native to Southern Europe and culti- 
vated in Yugoslava, and other parts of Europe; England, 
Canada, and United States of America. 

Description: A perennial herb of the mint family. 

Properties of the Dried Herb: Color: Gray, tinged with green. 
Appearance : Dried, whole and broken leaves with fragments 
of stems (petioles). The leaves are oblong-lanceolate and 
covered with a growth of fine short hair giving them a furry 
or wooly appearance (pubescent). 

Aroma and Taste: The odor is strong, fragrant and aromatic 
and the taste is aromatic, warm, somewhat astringent and 
a little bitter. 
The properties described above are those of Dalmatian sage, 

considered by the trade to be the best quality sage reaching us 

147 



148 



The Spice Handbook 




A Variety of Sage (Salvia Officinalis) 
Grown in America and Canada 




Tip of Young Sage (S. Officinalis) 
Taken from a Variety Grown in America and Canada 



Sage 149 

here in America. Due to war conditions, imports of sage from 
Dalmatia have been interrupted and other varieties and species 
have found a place in our markets, for example, Portuguese, 
Spanish and Cyprus sage. 

Portuguese Sage 




Dried Portuguese Sage Leaves 




Tip of Portuguese Sage Leaf x 7y 2 

(Tip Point of This Leaf Is Broken) 

Properties: Color: Light gray. 

Appearance : Dried, whole and broken leaves together with 
short lengths of stalk having a few leaves attached. Whole 
leaves are comparatively long and lanceolate. Due to the 



150 



The Spice Handbook 



growth of numerous short hairs, leaves appear furry or 
wooly and are very soft and smooth to the touch. 
Aroma and Taste: Practically devoid of odor and flavor. 
Portuguese sage is useless by itself for flavoring purposes. 

Spanish Sage 




Dried Spanish Sage Leaves 







Tips of Two Spanish Sage Leaves x 7/2 



Properties: Color: Moderately dark gray. 

Appearance : Dried, whole and broken leaves together with 
stems fragments (mostly petioles). Whole leaves are small, 



Sage 151 

elliptical and covered with a growth of fine short hair 
(pubescent). The leaves do not have the wooly appearance 
of Dalmatian or Portuguese sage. 

Aroma and Taste: When the leaves are crushed, the odor 
is aromatic with a camphoraceous note. The taste is warm, 
a little bitter, somewhat astringent and camphoraceous. 

Cyprus Sage 




Dried Cyprus Sage Leaves 

Properties: Color: Grayish-green to dark gray. 

Appearance: This sage has a hard, coarse appearance and 
consists of whole and broken leaves. The whole leaves are 
larger than those of Spanish sage, oval, or ovate-lanceolate. 
The leaves are finely crenate and covered with a growth of 
fine short hair but they no not have a furry or wooly ap- 
pearance. 

Aroma and Taste: Aromatic, fragrant, somewhat campho- 
raceous odor. The taste is faintly aromatic, a little bitter, 
and somewhat camphoraceous. The properties of aroma and 
taste of different samples of this sage were found to vary 
considerably. 
Cyprus sage more closely resembles the Dalmatian and do- 
mestically produced "Dalmatian types" than any other type but 
due to its brittleness it cannot be satisfactorily rubbed. 

Canadian and American sage has also found its way to market 



152 



The Spice Handbook 




Tip of Cyprus Sage Leaf x7/ 2 

and for aroma and flavor these sages are very good and akin to 
the Dalmatian herb. Unfortunately production is not yet very 
large. . No crop figures are available for the Canadian herb but 
the 1942 crop of United States sage is estimated at 100,000 
pounds.* 

A wild sage is gathered in California, north of Los Angeles, 
known as Leucophylla. The U. S. government, however, does not 
class it as Salvia officinalis and it cannot be used in the prepara- 
tion of meats. 

Uses: Sage is probably the most important culinary herb in ex- 
istence. It is found in every kitchen for the flavoring of 
meat and fish dishes and is used in the making of poultry 
stuffings. Meat packers and makers of fancy meats and 
sausages use considerable quantities of this herb. Sage is 
an important constituent ol many ground spice formulae, 
including poultry dressing, sausage, liver sausage and ham- 
burger seasonings. 
Grinding: Due to the "wooly" nature of sage it is best ground in 
a pulverizer or hammer mill. This will reduce it to the req- 
uisite fineness without further screening. 
Adulteration: Dalmatian sage is subject to adulteration with 

inferior varieties and species of sage. 
Packing: Dalmatian sage is packed in bales of 200 to 400 
pounds; Spanish sage in bales of 130 pounds; Cyprus sage 






* Spice Manual and Directory, 1943, A.S.T.A., p. 105. 



Sage 153 

in bales of 550 to 700 pounds; Portuguese sage in bales of 

110 pounds. 
Essential Oil: Sage (Salvia officinalis) yields from 1.5 to 3% 

of volatile oil having the following properties : * 

Specific gravity at 15°C: 0.910-0.932 

Optical rotation at 20°C. : +2 to +25° 

Refractive index at 20°C. : 1.457-1.469 

Solubility: 1 part in 2 parts of 80% alcohol. 
Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. "SAGE. The dried leaf of Salvia 

officinalis L. It contains not more than 12 per cent of stems 

(excluding petioles) and other foreign matter." 



* The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22). 



CHAPTER 33 

SAVORY 




Savory Leaf (Folded) x 7y 2 
Note Dot-Like Oil Glands 

Plant: Salureia hortensis L. 

Family: Labiatae. 

Nativity and Cultivation : Native to Southern Europe and culti- 
vated in Southern France, Germany, Spain and other parts 
of Europe ; England, Canada and United States of America. 

Description: An annual herbaceous plant of the mint family. 

Properties of the Dried Herb: Color: Brownish-green. 

Appearance: Very small, averaging about Y\ of an inch 
in length, dried, whole leaves with some stem fragments 
present. Savory leaves fold along the midrib during the 
drying process. The unfolded leaf is spatulate, obtuse at 
apex and tapered at base into petiole. If the leaf is examined 
under the low power of the microscope, many dot-size oil 



glands will be seen. 



154 



Savory 155 

Aroma and Taste: Fragrant, aromatic odor and a warm, 

aromatic, slightly sharp and somewhat camphoraceous taste. 
Savory is available whole, rubbed or powdered. 
Uses : The culinary uses for savory include the flavoring of soups 

and sauces, meat, tgg and salad dishes. It is a constituent of 

poultry dressing. 
Grinding: Savory should be ground fine enough to pass through 

a mesh 38 to 48 screen. 
Packing: Savory is packed in bags varying from 85 to 135 

pounds net, according to the place of origin. 
Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. "SAVORY, SUMMER SAVORY. 

The dried leaves and flowering tops of Satureia hortensis 

L." 






CHAPTER 34 

THYME 




Dried Thyme Leaves x 7y 2 

Plant: Thymus vulgaris L. 

Family: Labiatae. 

Nativity and Cultivation : Native to Southern Europe and culti- 
vated in France, Germany, Spain, Italy and other parts of 
Europe, England, North Africa, Canada and United States 
of America. 

Description : A perennial herbaceous plant of the mint family. 

Properties of the Dried Herb: Color: Brownish-green. 

Appearance: Small, dried, revolute leaves with a few stem 
fragments present. The dried leaves vary in length from 
about 1/16 to Y\ of an inch in length. When the leaf is 
viewed under the low power of the microscope, many dot- 
size oil glands will be seen. 

Aroma and Taste: Crushed in the mortar, the leaves yield 

156 



Thyme 157 

a fragrant and aromatic odor. The taste is aromatic, warm 

and pungent. 
Thyme is available whole or ground. 
Uses : The culinary uses for thyme include the flavoring of soups, 

meat and fish dishes. It is an ingredient of poultry dressing. 
Grinding : Thyme should be ground fine enough to pass through 

a mesh 38 to 48 screen. 
Packing: Thyme is packed in bales of 75 and 110 pounds. 

French thyme is packed in bags of 160 pounds. 
Essential Oil: Thyme yields about 2.5% of volatile oil having 

the following properties : * 

Specific gravity at 15°C. : 0.905-0.930 

Optical rotation at 20°C. : to -4° 

Refractive index at 20°C. : 1.480-1.498 

Solubility: 1 part in 2 parts of 80% alcohol. 
Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 

F. D. No. 2, U. S. A. "THYME. The dried leaves and 

flowering tops of Thymus vulgaris L. It contains not more 

than 14 per cent of total ash, nor more than 4 per cent of 

ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid." 



* The Chemists' Year Book, 1944 (see p. 22). 



CHAPTER 35 

GARLIC POWDER 

Plant: Allium sativum L. 

Family: Liliaceae. 

Nativity and Cultivation: Nativity unknown; cultivation inten- 
sive and universal. 

Description: A perennial bulbous plant of the lily family. 

Garlic powder is the ground product of dehydrated garlic. In 

the finer grades of garlic powder, only the selected cloves of 

garlic are used. The powder is cream or creamy-white in color 

and its strong, heavy, persistent aroma and taste are well known. 

Garlic powder should be kept in a closed container impervious to 

moisture otherwise it will become lumpy and hard. 

GARLIC SALT is a mixture of garlic powder and free- 
running table salt with or without starch. Starch is sometimes 

added to help prevent the caking of the product. 

Uses: Garlic powder is employed by the meat packing industry 
and other makers of fancy meats and sausages for the flavor- 
ing of their products. Garlic salt has numerous culinary 
uses and if not overdone, greatly improves the flavor of 
meat dishes, salads and sauces. It goes well with tomato 
juice. 

Packing: Garlic powder is usually packed in 30 pound metal 
containers there being two containers to the wooden case. 

Starch : Garlic powder contains no starch. 

Essential Oil: Garlic contains about 0.1% of volatile oil having 
a specific gravity of 1.046 to 1.057.* 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 
F. D. No. 2, U. S. No reference. 



* U. S. Dispensatory, 23rd Ed., 1943, p. 1251. 

158 



CHAPTER 36 

ONION POWDER 

Plant: Allium capa L. 

Family: Liliaceae. 

Nativity and Cultivation : Nativity unknown ; cultivation wide- 
spread and intensive. 

Description: A biennial bulbous plant of the lily family. 

ONION POWDER is the ground product of dehydrated 

onions. It is a creamy-white powder with properties of aroma 

and taste similar to those of the fresh onion. Like garlic powder, 

it should be kept in containers impervious to moisture otherwise 

the powder becomes lumpy and hard. 

ONION SALT is a mixture of onion powder and free-running 

table salt, with or without starch. Starch is sometimes added to 

prevent the caking of the powder. 

Uses: Onion powder may be put to most of the purposes for 
which the fresh onion is ordinarily used. It is always in 
demand by the meat packing industry and makers of fancy 
meats and sausages. The salt is excellent for flavoring meats, 
gravies, sauces, sandwiches, etc. 

Packing: Onion powder is packed in 25 pound metal containers 
and two of these containers are packed in a wooden case. 

Starch: Onion powder contains no starch. 

Government Standards: F. D. Canada. No reference. 
F. D. No. 2, U. S. No reference. 



159 



CHAPTER 37 

MISCELLANEOUS MIXTURES OF 
SPICES AND HERBS 

CURRY POWDER 

Curry powder is prepared by grinding together a number of 
spices including cinnamon, cumin, cardamom, coriander, turmeric, 
cloves, red pepper, fenugreek, allspice, black pepper, ginger, mus- 
tard and nutmeg. Depending upon the type of curry powder 
required, all these spices may be employed, some may be omitted, 
others may be added. 

A standard mixture would be unsuitable to those who know 
and use curry powder because curry requirements vary with the 
dish in hand. For example, to curry fish a different mixture is 
required from that used to curry meat. Again, some prefer a 
mild curry while others must have a "hot" curry. 

Curry powder is used for currying meat, fish and eggs. It is 
also employed to some extent as a flavoring agent in sauces, meat 
and fish dishes. 

PASTRY SPICE 

Pastry spice is a blend of spices including cinnamon, cloves, 
ginger, allspice and nutmeg, with or without sugar. It is a con- 
venient way to buy these essential spices and many commercial 
and domestic users prefer such a preparation for the flavoring 
of pastries, puddings, cakes, etc. 

POULTRY DRESSING 

Poultry dressing is a mixture of herbs and spices usually in- 
cluding pepper, ginger, mace, allspice, cloves, marjoram, nutmeg, 
thyme, savory and sage. The seasoning may be prepared by grind- 

160 






Miscellaneous Mixtures of Spices and Herbs 161 

ing the various spices and herbs together or the ground ingredi- 
ents may be mechanically mixed. It is a kitchen favorite for 
poultry, veal and pork stuffings and it is also employed by in- 
dustrial processors of delicatessen and fancy meats. 

PICKLING SPICE (Whole, Mixed) 

Whole mixed pickling spice is a mixture of the following whole 
spices : cassia, allspice, coriander, mustard seed, laurel leaves, 
cloves, ginger, pepper, chilli peppers and cardamom seed. The 
cassia, ginger and laurel leaves are first "cracked" to bring these 
spices to the right size and then all of the ingredients are 
thoroughly mixed with or without a small quantity of salad oil. 
The oil is generally added to give the mixture a bright appear- 
ance. Pickling spice is extensively employed for the pickling and 
preserving of vegetables and it is very much in demand during 
the pickling season by both the public and industrial food pro- 
cessors. 

SAUSAGE SEASONING 

Sausage seasoning is a mixture of pepper, sage, ginger, nutmeg, 
cloves or allspice, and sometimes red pepper. It may be prepared 
by grinding the various spices together or the ground ingredients 
may be mechanically mixed. It is usually in demand by butchers 
and makers of fancy meats. 



CHAPTER 38 



MISCELLANEOUS ROOTS, 
HERBS, BARKS, ETC. 

ANGELICA 




Angelica Root 

Somewhat Less Than Half Natural Size 

Angelica root is the rhizome of Angelica archangelica L. 
(Archangelica officinalis Hoffm., family Umbelliferae), a peren- 
nial herb, native to Asia Minor and cultivated in Germany. The 
root has an agreeable odor and an aromatic, pungent taste. All 
parts of the plant are aromatic. It is used chiefly for flavoring 
liqueurs, e.g., absinthe, anisette, chartreuse, Benedictine, and gin. 

"Angelica is one of those survivals of ancient superstition 
which attributed medicinal properties to so many aromatic herbs. 
The potency of the drug may be estimated by the fact that in 
Europe the root and stems are candied and eaten as a conserve." 
U. S. Dispensatory 23rd Ed., 1943. 



162 



Miscellaneous Roots, Herbs, Barks, Etc. 163 

CALAMUS ROOT 

Calamus root is the dried rhizome of Acorus calamus L., a 
perennial plant growing in Europe and America. The root has 
an aromatic odor and taste and is used, as is also its essential 
oil, in the manufacture of liqueurs, essences and bitters. 

CAPERS 

According to the U. S. Dispensatory, 23rd Edition, 1943, 
capers are the buds of unexpanded flowers of Capparis spinosa 
L., (family Capparidaceae), a low, trailing shrub, growing in the 
south of Europe and North Africa. 

Capers are used for flavoring pickles, relishes, and sauces. 
Caper sauce with boiled mutton is a great favorite. 

GENTIAN ROOT 




Hill 

Gentian Root 
Somewhat Less Than Half Natural Size 

Gentian root is the dried rhizome of Gentiana lutea L. grow- 
ing in Europe and Asia Minor. It has a characteristic odor and a 



164 



The Spice Handbook 



bitter taste and it is used in the manufacture of stomach essences 
and bitters. 

JUNIPER BERRIES 




Juniper Berries 

About 2 /z Natural Size 

Juniper berries are the dried ripe fruits of Juniperus communis 
Linn, (family Pinaceae). The plant is an evergreen of variable 
size growing in Europe, Northern Asia and America. The aroma 
of the berries is pleasant and aromatic. The taste is sweet. They 
are used in the manufacture of gin, juniper berry liqueur, and 
bitters. 

According to F. D. No. 2, U. S. A., Saffron is "the dried 
stigma of Crocus sativus L. It contains not more than 10 per cent 
of yellow styles and other foreign matter, not more than 14 per 
cent of volatile matter when dried at 100°C, not more than 7.5 
per cent of total ash, nor more than 1 per cent of ash insoluble in 
hydrochloric acid." 

Saffron is cultivated in Austria, Spain, France, Greece, Eng- 
land and the Orient. The dried stigmas are about one inch long 
and are dark red to reddish-brown in color. The odor is char- 
acteristic and the taste somewhat bitter. It is employed as a 
flavoring and coloring agent. 



Miscellaneous Roots, Herbs, Barks, Etc. 165 

SAFFRON 




Spanish Saffron x 7j/ 2 




Mexican Saffron x 7y 2 

MEXICAN SAFFRON : Mexican saffron is not the true saf- 
fron, Crocus sativus of the iris family. It is botanically classified 
as Carthamus tinctorius L. of the family compositae and is an 
annual herb grown in the temperate regions of the central Mexi- 
can tablelands.* 



* Correspondence, Dept. of Agriculture, Mexico. Oct. 6, 1943. 



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The Spice Handbook 



SASSAFRAS 

"Sassafras is the dried bark of the root of Sassafras albidum 
(Nuttall) Nees (family Lauraceae). Sassafras contains not more 
than 4 per cent of adhering wood, outer corky tissues, or other 
foreign matter, yields not more than 5 per cent of acid-insoluble 
ash, and not less than 4.0 ml. of oil of sassafras from each 100 g. 
of drug." National Formulary.** 

The aromatic odor and flavor of this bark is responsible for 
its use in the manufacture of root beer and sarsaparilla extract. 
The oil of sassafras has considerable commercial value and it is 
used extensively as a perfume by these industries manufacturing- 
soaps, insecticides, floor oils and polishing oils. 

SWEET BASIL 

Sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum L. (family Labiatae), is an 
annual herbaceous plant native to India and Persia and cultivated 




Part of Sweet Basil Leaf xl5 
Showing Dot-Like Oil Glands 



** The National Formularv, Seventh Edition, taken from U. S. Dispensatory, 
23rd Ed., 1943. 



Miscellaneous Roots, Herbs, Barks, Etc. 



167 




Part of Sweet Basil Leaf x 50 

Showing Oil Glands 




Leaves of Sweet Basil 

in Europe and America. The stems are square, i.e., four-sided, 
and the bright green leaves are opposite, ovate, somewhat toothed, 
and vary from yi an inch to lj4 inches in length. The leaves 



168 The Spice Handbook 

have numerous dot-like oil glands (see photomicrograph) in 
which the aromatic volatile oil of this herb is contained. The herb 
is low growing and bears clusters of small, white, two-lipped 
flowers in raceme fashion. It is easily grown in the garden. 

The color of the dried leaves is brownish-green and in ap- 
pearance a sample of the dried herb presents a mass of whole 
and broken leaves, brittle, curled or folded, together with some 
flowering tops. 

The odor of sweet basil is aromatic, fragrant and sweet. When 
crushed, the odor is decidedly sweetish and strongly suggestive 
of anise. The taste is aromatic, warm, and somewhat pungent. 

The culinary uses for sweet basil are numerous including the 
flavoring of soups, tomato and vegetable dishes, stews and dress- 
ings. 

TARRAGON 

According to F. D. No. 2, U. S. A., Tarragon is "the dried 
leaves and flowering tops of Artemisia dracunculus L." The 
leaves of this small herbaceous perennial are used for flavoring 
vinegar, pickles, prepared mustard, and to a limited extent in the 
culinary art for the flavoring of soups, salads, and some meat 
dishes. This herb is the source of the volatile oil of Tarragon 
responsible for the aromatic, anise-like odor of the plant. 

VALERIAN ROOT 

Valerian root is the dried rhizome of Valeriana officinalis L., 
an herbaceous plant belonging to the family Valerianaceae. It 
has a sweetish and somewhat camphoraceous taste and is used 
in the manufacture of valerian tincture, liqueurs and essences. 

ZEDOARY ROOT 

Zedoary root is the dried rhizome of Curcuma zedoaria Ros- 
coe. The plant is a member of the ginger family and is native 
to India where it is cultivated. The root has an aromatic, pungent 
taste and is used in the manufacture of liqueurs, stomach essences 
and bitters. 



PART 5 
SPICE FORMULAE 



CHAPTER 39 

SPICE FORMULAE 

A number of the more often called for spice formulae are 
given here to assist those interested in arriving at the best com- 
bination of spices, seeds, and herbs for the flavoring of the partic- 
ular food product they have in hand. There is nothing rigid 
or fixed about a spice formula and just whrt is the right quantity 
of this or that ingredient depends largel] upon individual and 
community tastes. Quality and richness of lavor is the objective 
and some users and manufacturers migh find that a blend of 
certain herbs is more satisfactory than the use of one commonly 
accepted herb and amongst the spices and aromatic seeds some 
might find a combination of two or three spices, or seeds, to be 
preferred to the generally accepted spice or seed. 

The requirements of the spice manufacturer have been kept 
in mind and an attempt has been made to construct formulae 
to meet the demands made upon him for high and low priced 
mixtures capable of doing the work for which they are named. 

The quantities of the ingredients of the various formulae are 
given in parts and the figures represent pounds, ounces, grams, or 
whatever weights the user is concerned with. 



171 



172 



The Spice Handbook 







Curry Powder 














a 


b 


c 


d 


e 


f 


ff 


h 


i 


Allspice 








4 


4 




4 


4 


2 


Cayenne 


1 


6 


6 


4 


4 


2 


5 


2 


2 


Cassia 








4 


4 




. . 


. . 




Cardamom 


12 


12 


12 


5 


5 










Coriander 


24 


22 


26 


27 


37 


32 


36 


36 


50 


Cloves 


4 


2 


2 


2 


2 










Cumin 


10 


10 


10 


8 


8 


10 


10 


10 


10 


Fennel 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


4 




. . 




Fenugreek 


10 


4 


10 


4 


4 


10 


10 


10 


5 


Ginger 


. . 


7 


7 


4 


4 


. . 


5 


2 


1 


Mace 








2 


2 










Mustard, yellow 














5 


3 


5 


Pepper, black 






5 


. . 


4 




5 






Pepper, white 


5 


5 




4 




10 




5 


10 


Turmeric 


32 


30 


20 


30 


20 


32 


20 


28 


15 



100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 

(a) Indian type mild curry. 

(b) Indian type hot curry, light color. 

(c) Indian type hot curry, dark color. 

(d) A good quality, moderately hot curry, light color. 

(e) A good quality, moderately hot curry, dark color. 

(f) A curry suitable for fish. 

(g) An inexpensive hot curry, dark color, 
(h) An inexpensive mild curry, light color, 
(i) A cheap, mild, dark color curry. 



Hindu 


Spice 








a 


b 


c 


Allspice 


5 


4 


5 


Cassia 


7 


8 


5 


Cloves 




2 


5 


Coriander 


40 


42 


35 


Caraway 


5 


4 


. . 


Cumin 


35 


35 


35 


Chillies 


5 


4 


. . 


Cardamom 


3 


1 


. . 


Ginger 


. . 


. . 


10 


Pepper, black 






5 




100 


100 


100 



Formulae 



173 



Mincemeat Spice 



Allspice 


25 


25 


38 


25 


24 


20 


10 




Cinnamon 


50 


50 


35 


45 


46 


40 


40 




Cloves 






12 


5 


10 


10 


10 




Ginger 




5 




5 


5 


10 


10 




Mace 


10 


7 


15 


7 


5 


10 


10 




Nutmeg 


15 


13 




13 


10 


10 


10 






100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 








Pastry Spice 










a 


b 


c 


d 


e 


f 


g 


h 


i 


Aniseed 5 


5 


2 














Allspice 10 


5 


15 


14 


14 


20 


25 


15 


20 


Cardamom 5 


5 


2 














Caraway 5 




1 


3 












Cinnamon 30 


30 


30 


45 


50 


50 


25 


40 


20 


Cloves 10 


15 


10 


6 


6 


10 


20 


4 


20 


Coriander . . 












20 




5 


Ginger 5 


5 


5 


4 


4 


10 


5 


6 


5 


Mace 10 


15 


10 


10 


10 






5 




Nutmeg 10 


15 


15 


8 


8 




5- 


10 


20 


Sugar 10 


5 


10 


10 


8 


10 




20 


10 



100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 



Pumpkin Pie Spice 





a 


b 


c 


Cinnamon 


36 


40 


50 


Cloves 


10 




10 


Ginger 


36 


35 


25 


Nutmeg 


18 


5 


5 


Mace 




20 


10 



100 100 



100 



174 



The Spice Handbook 



Bologna Seasoning 







a 


b 


c 


d 


Allspice 




10 


5 


10 


15 


Caraway 




3 


5 


. . 


5 


Coriander 




. . 


5 


. m 


10 


Dill 




5 


5 


10 




Mace 




5 


5 


5 




Nutmeg 




10 


10 


10 


5 


Onion powder 




4 


5 


5 


5 


Pepper, white 




53 


50 


50 


55 


Paprika 




10 


10 


10 


5 






100 


100 


100 


100 


Frankfurter Seasoning 








a 


b 


c 


d 


e 


Allspice 


10 


5 


5 






Anise 




5 


5 


10 


*5 


Caraway 


10 


5 


5 


10 


5 


Coriander 


10 


10 


10 


10 


20 


Dill 




5 


5 




5 


Mace 


*5 


10 


10 


10 


10 


Nutmeg 


10 


5 


5 


5 




Onion powder 


3 


5 


3 


3 


'.3 


Paprika 


5 


4 


4 


2 


2 


Pepper, white 


47 


46 


48 


50 


50 



100 100 100 100 



100 



Hamburger Seasoning 



Liver Sausage Seasoning 





a 


b 


Cardamom 


8 


5 


. . 


Allspice 


36 


45 


Celery seed 


10 


10 


5 


Celery seed 


10 


10 


Ginger 


10 


12 


10 


Cloves 


10 


5 


Marjoram 


20 


20 


20 


Cardamom 


5 


. . 


Onion powder 


2 


3 


5 


Onion powder 


2 


2 


Origanum 






5 


Pepper, white 


12 


15 


Pepper, white 


40 


40 


20 


Sage 


25 


23 


Pepper, black 






25 








Sage 


10 


10 


5 




100 


100 


Savory 


100 


100 


5 
100 







Formulae 






175 






Mixed Herbs 






a 




b 




c 




Marjoram 


25 


Celery seed 


7 


Marjoram 


30 


Mint 


5 


Marjoram 


15 


Rosemary 


25 


Rosemary 


20 


Parsley 


28 


Sage 


15 


Sage 


15 


Savory 


15 


Thyme 


30 


Savory 


15 


Sweet basil 


7 






Thyme 


20 


Thyme 


28 







100 



100 



Pickling Spice, Whole Mixed 



100 





a 


b 


c 


d 


e 


f 


Allspice 


15 


15 


18 


20 


10 


15 


Bay leaves, cracked 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


Cardamom, decorticated 


5 


5 


• . 






. . 


Cassia, cracked 


15 


15 


12 


10 


10 


5 


Chillies, whole 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


Coriander, whole 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


Cloves, whole 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


Ginger, cracked 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


Mace, broken 


5 












Mustard seed, whole 


10 


15 


18 


20 


20 


20 


Pepper, black, whole 


10 


10 


12 


12 


20 


20 



100 100 100 100 100 ICO 

Note : Some manufacturers include a small quantity of dill seed, or cara- 
way seed, or both. 



176 



The Spice Handbook 



Pickling Spice, Whole Mixed, For Fish 





a 


b 


Allspice, whole 


8 


12 


Bay leaves, cracked 


15 


12 


Cardamom, decorticated 


4 


6 


Chillies, whole 


15 


10 


Cinnamom, cracked 


4 


12 


Cloves, whole 


15 


12 


Ginger, cracked 


4 


10 


Mace, broken 


4 


6 


Mustard seed, whole 


15 


10 


Pepper, black, whole 


8 


10 


Pepper, white, whole 


8 





100 
Pork Sausage Seasoning 



100 





a 


b 


c 


d 


e 


Allspice 


5 


10 


10 


15 




Celery seed 




. . 


2 




*5 


Cardamom 


'5 


3 


5 


. . 


. . 


Coriander 


20 


10 


10 


15 


5 


Caraway 


5 




2 


. . 


. . 


Cayenne 




2 


1 


. . 




Cassia 


. . 


5 


2 


. . 




Dill seed 






3 




15 


Mace 


io 


5 


5 


. . 


. . 


Nutmeg 




5 


10 


10 


20 


Pepper, white 


50 


55 


40 


50 


45 


Sage 




5 


5 


10 


10 


Thyme 


*5 




5 







100 



100 



100 



100 



100 





Poultry 


Dressing 










a 


b 


c 


d 


e 


f 


Allspice 


5 


5 


5 


10 


5 


5 


Cloves 


5 


5 




5 


. . 


5 


Ginger 


5 


10 


10 


10 


5 


12 


Mace 




5 




5 






Marjoram 


15 




10 






. . 


Nutmeg 


5 


5 


5 


10 


5 


10 


Pepper, white 


35 


25 


35 


30 


50 


48 


Sage 


15 


15 


15 


10 


15 


6 


Savory 


5 


15 


10 


10 


5 


8 


Thyme 


10 


15 


10 


10 


15 


6 



177 



100 100 100 100 100 100 
Sausage Seasoning 





a 


b 


c 


d 


e 


Allspice 


15 


10 


10 




18 


Cloves 


5 


. . 


5 


2 




Ginger 


10 


5 


5 


15 


5 


Mace 


5 


10 


5 


5 




Nutmeg 


15 


5 


10 


5 


10 


Pepper, white 


30 


55 


45 


58 


50 


Paprika 


5 


5 


5 


. . 


2 


Sage 


15 


10 


10 


5 


5 


Salt 






5 


10 


10 



100 



100 



100 



100 



Summer Sausage Seasoning 



100 





a 


b 


c 


Caraway 


5 


5 


3 


Dill 


10 


5 


7 


Marjoram 


12 


7 


5 


Garlic powder 


3 


3 


5 


Paprika 


5 


5 


5 


Pepper, white 


40 


25 




Pepper, black 


20 


45 


70 


Turmeric 


5 


5 


5 



100 



100 



100 



APPENDIX 

Standards Contracts 

of THE 

American Spice Trade Association 



Standard Arrival Contract 
of the 
American Spice Trade Association . . 

As amended, effective on and after Sept. 1, 1944 
New York, N. Y. 

Sold for account of M 

to M 

Quantity, about 

Article 

Quality 

Price 

(Any change in present import duties of the U. S. A. and any 
Federal, State and Municipal taxes shall be for account of 
buyer) 

Shipment 

By Steamer or Steamers during 

19 , direct or indirect to 

Terms 

Weights 

Tares 

Insurance 

Insurance to include war risk according to American Institute 
form or equivalent prevailing at the time of shipment, but 
any expense for covering war risk in excess of one-half of 
one per cent { J / 2 %) to be for account of buyers. Rate of in- 
surance to be approximately that ruling in New York at the 
time of shipment. 
A. All questions and controversies, and all claims arising under 

this contract shall be submitted to and settled by Arbitration under 

the Rules of The American Spice Trade Association printed on 

the reverse side hereof. This contract is made as of in New York. 

181 



182 The Spice Handbook 

WAIVER OF PERSONAL SERVICE 

Each party to a submission or other agreement which provides 
for arbitration under these rules, shall be deemed to have con- 
sented that any papers, notices or process necessary or proper 
for the institution or continuation of an arbitration proceeding 
under these rules or for the confirmation of an award and entry 
of judgment on an award made thereunder, including appeals 
in connection therewith, may be served upon such party (a) by 
mail addressed to such party's last known address or (b) by 
personal service, within or without the State wherein the arbitra- 
tion is to be held, or within or without the limits of the juris- 
diction of the Court having jurisdiction in the premises (whether 
such party be within or without the United States of America) 
or (c) where a party to a controversy is not located in the City 
of New York, by mail or personally, as provided in (a) and (b) 
hereof, upon his agent or broker through whom the contract was 
made; provided that a reasonable time shall be allowed such 
party to appear and defend. 
ACCEPTED 



Signature. 

Rules for Standard Arrival Contract 

1. DISPUTES. Any question, controversy or claim whatever 
between buyer and seller arising out of this contract, not adjusted 
by mutual agreement, shall be settled by arbitration in New 
York under the rules herein provided. 

2. QUANTITY. It is understood that the word "about" ap- 
plied to quantity contracted for, means the nearest amount which 
sellers should fairly and reasonably deliver, but no excess or 
deficiency to be greater than iy 2 per cent. Unless otherwise 
specified, the ton shall be considered 2,240 pounds. 

3. SHIPMENT. Prompt, shall mean shipment within four- 
teen days. The date of shipment shall be, prima facie, the date of 
the Bill of Lading covering the merchandise. 



Appendix 183 

4. DECLARATIONS. The name of the vessel or vessels 
shall be declared to the buyer by the seller before arrival of the 
vessel or vessels, and in no case later than two business days 
after the name of the vessel or vessels become known to the 
seller, excepting in case of shipments from English, West Indian, 
Continental or African Ports to American Ports ; and excepting 
also when sellers can show that they were prevented from making 
such declaration before the vessel's arrival by circumstances over 
which they had no control. No declaration may be withdrawn 
or changed by seller unless he can show error in the original 
declaration received by him; each declaration shall be treated as 
a separate contract. The word "afloat" shall be deemed to mean 
that the steamer carrying the merchandise in question shall have 
left the port of shipment at the date of sale. 

5. LANDING WEIGHTS. Landing weights shall be the 
actual gross weights ; the goods to be weighed at seller's expense 
by public weighers, as soon as practicable after landing, in such 
lots as may be requested by buyers in writing within three days 
after the arrival of vessel. 

6. TARES. Pepper, Black and White, 2 per cent; Pimento, 
3 lbs. per bag; Ceylon Cinnamon, 3 lbs. per bale; Tapioca, 2 lbs. 
per bag. 

All other spices, seeds and herbs in bags or bales; average 
actual, to be ascertained by taring a certain percentage of the 
sound portion of each chop or invoice, as follows : 100 packages 
or more, 5 per cent less than 100 packages, 10 per cent (such 
percentages to be at least the average gross weight of the chop 
or invoice) to be tared to the ounce and adjusted to the quarter- 
pound, each fraction of a quarter of a pound to be carried to 
the next higher quarter-pound. 

All spices and seeds in cases or barrels : Tares to be ascertained 
by taking a test tare of 5 per cent on each 100 packages and 10 
per cent on less than 100 packages, taking the marked tares, and 
adjusting up or down according to the gain or loss shown by 
the test tare. In case of no marked tares, actual tares to govern. 

In case of packing in double bags, the outside bag shall be 



184 The Spice Handbook 

average actual. This rule to apply on all commodities. Weighers' 
returns of tares to state the gross weight of every package tared. 

7. DATE OF DELIVERY. Shall be the final date of weigh- 
ing; or when the goods are not to be weighed, the last date of 
ships' receipts, but in either case not later than ten days after 
landing, except that in case of missing packages, such missing 
packages shall be invoiced separately if and when delivered, pro- 
vided such delivery is within thirty days. 

In the event of the merchandise being detained by the Food 
and Drug Administration of the Federal Security Agency or 
Successor Agency or Agencies, date of invoice shall be date of 
release. This rule not to apply to C. I. F. and C. & F. contracts. 

8. IMPORT REGULATIONS. All spices, seeds, tapioca or 
herbs purchased under this contract shall comply with the rules 
and standards under which the Food and Drug Administration 
of the Federal Security Agency or Successor Agency or Agencies 
enforces the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of June 25, 1938, and 
amendments thereto, at date of signing this contract. If any 
such merchandise must be recleaned or repicked to comply with 
these standards, the expense and loss in weight incident thereto 
shall be for the account of the seller; any reasonable loss in 
weight on reconditioning to be considered part of tender. 

Should such merchandise fail to comply with these Government 
standards after the seller has made every reasonable effort with 
due diligence, including recleaning and repicking, to make it 
pass, the buyer shall still have the option to accept the merchandise ; 
otherwise, the contract shall be considered cancelled, excepting 
should such merchandise be inferior to contract description, it 
shall not be a proper tender against the contract. 

Where goods are sold to be released by the Food and Drug 
Administration or no sale, expenses of storage, labor, cartage 
and insurance pending decision, shall be borne by seller if excluded 
and by buyer if released. 

Sound and damaged merchandise to be taken by the buyer. Al- 
lowance for damage to be determined by arbitration or otherwise. 
Should the quality of the damaged portion in the opinion of the 



Appendix 185 

arbitrators be unmerchantable, buyer shall have the option of 
rejecting the damaged portion, but seller shall have the right to 
replace the rejected quantity from dock or steamer within the 
contract period or within ten days from date of arbitration de- 
cision. 

Under a C. I. F. or C. & F. contract: This rule not to apply to 
any portion of the shipment arriving in a damaged condition, if 
said damage is caused during the voyage, provided that the sound 
merchandise is up to contract description. 

9. STANDARDS. All Pepper shall be subject to allowance 
if it contains a greater percentage of dust, dirt, stems, chaff or 
extraneous matter than is customary in Pepper of its kind, and 
in no case to exceed 3 per cent as determined by sifting through 
a No. 9J/2 roundhole sieve. The permissible percentage of stems 
in Cloves shall be 5 per cent. The permissible percentage of loose 
lime in Japan Ginger shall be 2 per cent, as determined by sifting 
through a No. 30 sieve. 

1Q. EQUIVALENT DELIVERIES. On contracts for Cloves 
for shipment from Africa, and for Black and White Peppers for 
shipment from Far Eastern Ports, to American Ports with an 
equivalent delivery clause, the minimum period under which an 
equivalent delivery may be made shall be 60 days from the first 
day of the stipulated shipping period, and the maximum period 
shall be 60 days from the last day of the stipulated shipping period. 

If the first seller exercises his option of equivalent delivery, 
the seller shall declare same before 12 o'clock noon, at least 3 
business days prior to the day on which the equivalent delivery 
is to be made. Subsequent redeclaration to be made with due dis- 
patch. 

11. CLOVES. The permissible percentage of moisture in 
Cloves shall not exceed 16 per cent by the Toluol method. In the 
event Cloves should be delivered with a moisture content in excess 
of the foregoing limit, allowance is to be made by sellers to buyers 
in proportion to the excess moisture as certified by a public analyst. 

12. LOSS OF VESSEL. Should any vessel or vessels and/or 
the merchandise thereon, or any portion, which may apply to this 



186 The Spice Handbook 

contract, be lost before declaration, this contract shall be cancelled 
and void so far as regards such lost vessel or vessels and/or the 
merchandise, on the production of satisfactory proofs of ship- 
ment by sellers as soon as practicable after said loss is ascertained. 
Should any vessel or vessels and/or the merchandise or any 
portion be lost after declaration, the contract shall be cancelled 
and void for such amount as shall be lost. Should the merchandise 
or any portion of it be transshipped to any other vessel or vessels 
and arrive for account of the original importer, the contract shall 
stand good for such portion. 

However, should such losses occur of merchandise sold under 
C. & F. and/or C. I. F. contract conditions, the buyer shall take 
up proper documents tendered by the seller in accordance with the 
terms and conditions of the contract. 

A. Merchandise sold under a C. I. F. contract to be insured by 
sellers at the price of the contract ; free of particular average under 
3 per cent in series of not more than ten packages, each separately 
insured. 

13. DEFAULT OF SELLER. Whenever it shall be admitted 
by the seller or decided by arbitration that the seller has failed to 
fulfill the terms of his contract, and is, therefore, in default, the 
contract shall be settled as follows : The buyer shall invoice the 
merchandise back to the seller at a price and weight to be fixed by 
arbitration, the price to be the market value on the day of default 
as specified by arbitration, which price shall not be less than 2 
per cent and not more than 10 per cent over the market value 
established as of the day of default ; the weight, in case the con- 
tract calls for shipping weights, to be the full contract weight, 
and in the case of landing weights, the full contract weight less 
reasonable and usual loss in weight. The difference to be paid in 
cash within ten days from the date of the arbitration award. 

14. INSOLVENCY OF BUYER OR SELLER. If before the 
maturity of this contract, either party liable on the face thereof 
shall suspend payment, or, be a defaulter, or, commit an act of 
bankruptcy, or, issue a notice convening a meeting of his creditors, 



Appendix 187 

or, become bankrupt or insolvent, or, fails to meet his general 
trade obligations in the regular course of business, this contract 
shall thereupon be closed (forty-eight hours' notice having been 
previously given to him) at a price to be fixed by arbitration. 

15. ARBITRATION. The following regulations shall govern 
all arbitration held under this contract. 

A. QUALITY. Unless it can be shown by the buyer that it 
was impossible to do so, arbitration of all disputes as to quality 
of merchandise and/or claims for allowance in price between buyer 
and seller shall be demanded within ten business days after the 
parcel is landed, and samples shall be drawn from the parcel on 
the wharf unless the entire parcel shall have been meanwhile stored 
in public warehouse, in which case samples shall be drawn within 
five business days after the parcel shall have been so housed and 
arbitration shall be held within six weeks of arrival of vessel. 
Individual samples for arbitration shall be drawn and scaled by a 
public sampler in the presence of representatives of both parties 
to the contract and shall be drawn from at least 10 per cent of 
each chop or invoice. Failure promptly to appoint a representative 
to supervise sampling will be considered as a waiver of the privilege 
and samples drawn in good faith by order of the other party, shall 
be used by the arbitrators. 

B. ARBITRATORS. Each disputant shall appoint a disin- 
terested member of the Association as arbitrator. If either dis- 
putant shall neglect to appoint an arbitrator within three business 
days after notice in writing is received by him from the other 
disputant of the appointment of his arbitrator, the President shall 
appoint the other arbitrator upon written request from either party 
to the dispute. Disputants may appoint one person to act as sole 
arbitrator. 

C. UMPIRE. The two arbitrators shall select a third disin- 
terested member of the Association as umpire, who shall meet 
and act with the arbitrators in the decision of the arbitration, and 
shall act as Chairman thereof. If the arbitrators shall fail to select 
the umpire within seven business days from their appointment, the 



188 The Spice Handbook 

President shall appoint the umpire upon request in writing from 
either arbitrator. Both parties shall be duly notified of the date 
of hearing and entitled to be present thereat. 

D. DISINTERESTED MEMBER. A disinterested member 
of the Association shall be deemed to be one who will not be di- 
rectly affected by the decision of the arbitration on which he is 
required to serve as arbitrator, umpire or member of the Arbitra- 
tion Committee. No disinterested member may refuse any reason- 
able request of the Arbitration Committee (except Alternates) 
shall not be eligible to serve as arbitrators or umpires. 

E. AWARD. The award of such arbitrators and umpire or 
sole arbitrator shall be final and binding on both parties, unless 
within three business days after receipt of the award, an appeal 
with a fee of $50 be lodged with the Secretary of the Association 
by either disputant. Settlements under an arbitration award or 
award of the Arbitration Committee shall be made within ten days 
from the date of such award, and if not so settled, judgment 
may be entered thereon in accordance with the practice of any 
Court having jurisdiction. 

F. APPEAL. All appeals shall be heard by the Arbitration 
Committee, which shall consider cases decided by arbitrators and 
umpires, and shall sustain, reverse or modify same. They shall 
have the right to remand appeals to the arbitrators and umpires 
for re-arbitration. If, on any appeal, any member of the Ar- 
bitration Committee shall be an interested party in the transaction, 
or contract in question, his place shall be taken for that appeal 
by the member on the list of Arbitration Committee Alternates 
next in rotation for service. Three business days' notice of 
the hearing of the appeal shall be given by the Secretary to 
the disputants and to the arbitrators and umpire whose award 
is appealed against, and they shall be entitled to be present and 
to be heard upon the matter in question. Not less than five of 
the Arbitration Committee being present, the decision of the 
majority shall be the final and binding decision of the appeal. 

G. BRIEFS. On appeals, other than those involving quality 
only, each appellant and respondent shall deliver to the Secretary 



Appendix 189 

of the Association seven copies of the brief or statement covering 
his case, duly sworn to, at least 48 hours before the time set 
for the appeal. 

H. FEES. Unless otherwise divided or awarded by the ar- 
bitrators and umpire, or, the Arbitration Committee, the fees 
for arbitration or appeal shall be finally paid by the losing party. 
In event of arbitration between a member and non-member of 
the Association, the member must guarantee the payment of the 
fees or the non-member must deposit the fees with the Secretary 
before the arbitration is held, and adjustment shall be made after 
the award has been rendered. 

The fees for arbitrators and umpires shall be $10 each in all 
cases, and in addition a $10 fee to the Association. In case the 
two disputants agree upon a single member, who shall act as 
the sole arbitrator, instead of two arbitrators and an umpire, 
the fee for the sole arbitrator shall be $20 in all cases, and in 
addition a $10 fee to the Association. If an appeal shall be de- 
cided in favor of the appellant, the appeal fee of $50 shall be 
returned to the appellant and the respondent shall pay the appeal 
fee of $50. Arbitrators or umpires shall be awarded extra fees 
by the Arbitration Committee, if in the judgment of the Com- 
mittee the said arbitrators and umpires shall have performed un- 
usual or extraordinary services during the arbitration on which 
they shall have served. 

I. OATHS. In all arbitrations and appeals, the arbitrators, 
umpire and members of the Arbitration Committee shall, before 
acting, subscribe to the usual legal oath of office. In all arbitra- 
tions and appeal hearings, all witnesses and principals giving oral 
evidence shall be duly sworn in the usual manner. Awards must 
be legally acknowledged. All notary fees to be paid as awarded 
by the arbitrators or Arbitration Committee in case of appeal. 

J. OFFER OF SETTLEMENT. In every case involving 
dispute, where the arbitrators and umpire decide that the con- 
tract has been properly fulfilled by the seller, or, in every case 
where the seller has before the arbitration offered settlement 
which is held by the arbitrators and umpire to be sufficient, but 



190 The Spice Handbook 

which the buyer refused to accept, the fees shall be paid by the 
buyer ; but where the buyer has offered a settlement and the seller 
has refused to make such settlement, which the arbitrators and 
umpire finally decide is adequate, the fees shall be paid by the 
seller; provided, that all offers as above shall have been made in 
writing. 

16. FORCE MAJEURE. This contract is subject to Force 
Majeure. In case the seller is unable to ship within contract time 
on account of prohibition of exports, fires, strikes, lockouts, riots, 
war, revolution or other case of Force Majeure, the shipping- 
period is automatically extended one month. 

17. MODIFICATIONS. Any part of this contract written or 
inserted on the reverse side hereof, shall modify the rules printed 
on this side. 



Standard Future Delivery Contract 

of the 

American Spice Trade Association 

As amended, effective on and after Sept. 1, 1944 
New York, N. Y. 

Sold for account of M 

to M 

Quantity, about 

Article 

Quality 

Price 

Any change in present import duties of the U. S. A. and any 
Federal, State or Municipal tax of any nature whatsoever 
levied in the U. S. A. upon the article referred to herein shall 
be for account of buyer. 

Terms 

WEIGHTS: Weights and customary tares, as per reverse of this 
contract. 



Appendix 191 

DELIVERY : To be ready for delivery at one of the steamship 

docks or public warehouses in the Port of 

provided that on the day of delivery there is no United States 
Government import tax or duty in effect in respect to the 
article tendered, otherwise "in bond" at one of the steamship 

docks or bonded public warehouses in the Port of , 

during 19 

In order to be tenderable the merchandise must be in original 

packages. The seller shall be entitled to tender on any business 

day during the month of delivery except the last four full 

business days, and he shall be bound to tender not later than 

1 1 :00 a.m. on the business day preceding the last four full 

business days of the month of delivery. After that a tender 

shall be deemed to be out of time unless it has been made in 

accordance with clauses 9 and 10 on the back hereof. 

INSURANCE: Fire risks to be covered by sellers for 10 days 

after the delivery at the price of this contract. 

All questions and controversies, and all claims arising under 

this contract shall be submitted to and settled by Arbitration under 

the Rules of The American Spice Trade Association printed on 

the reverse side hereof. This contract is made as of in New York. 

WAIVER OF PERSONAL SERVICE 

Each party to a submission or other agreement which provides 
for arbitration under these rules, shall be deemed to have con- 
sented that any papers, notices or process necessary or proper 
for the institution or continuation of an arbitration proceeding 
under these rules or for the confirmation of an award and entry 
of judgment on an award made thereunder, including appeals 
in connection therewith, may be served upon such party (a) by 
mail addressed to such party's last known address or (b) by 
personal service, within or without the State wherein the arbitra- 
tion is to be held, or within or without the limits of the jurisdiction 
of the Court having jurisdiction in the premises (whether such 
party be within or without the United States of America) or (c) 
where a party to a controversy is not located in the City of New 



192 The Spice Handbook 

York, by mail or personally, as provided in (a) and (b) hereof, 
upon his agent or broker through whom the contract was made ; 
provided that a reasonable time shall be allowed such party to 
appear and defend. 
ACCEPTED 






Signature. 

Rules for Standard Future Delivery Contract 

1. DISPUTES. Any question, controversy or claim whatever 
between buyer and seller, arising out of this contract, not adjusted 
by mutual agreement, shall be settled by arbitration in New York 
under the rules herein provided. 

2. QUANTITY. It is understood that the word "about" ap- 
plied to quantity contracted for, means the nearest amount which 
sellers should fairly and reasonably deliver, but no excess of defi- 
ciency to be greater than 2j4%. In case the excess or deficiency 
on any delivery should be over 2 J / 2 %, the difference, up to a 
maximum of 5%, must be settled between buyer and seller at 
prevailing market price. Unless otherwise specified, the ton shall 
be considered 2,240 lb. 

3. TERMS. When the terms of payment are net cash against 
delivery order or warehouse receipt, and merchandise is not 
weighed when tendered, payment shall be 97 l / 2 % of the approxi- 
mate invoice amount, and the balance due shall be paid within 
seven days from the date of final invoice. 

4. TENDERS. Black Pepper and White Pepper when sold 
in lots of fifteen tons or multiple thereof, must be tendered in 
units of fifteen tons, each unit to be on one dock or in one store 
of a public warehouse, but need not be made up of one chop or 
mark. 

5. STANDARDS. All spices, seeds or herbs purchased under 
this contract, shall comply with the rules which the Food and 
Drug Administration of the Federal Security Agency or Suc- 
cessor Agency or Agencies enforce the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic 
Act of June 25, 1938, and amendments thereto in force at the 



Appendix 193 

date of this contract. All Pepper shall be subject to allowance 
if it contains a greater percentage of dust, dirt, stems, chaff or 
extraneous matter than is customary in Pepper of its kind, and 
in no case to exceed 3 per cent, as determined by sifting through 
a No. 9J4 roundhole sieve. The permissible percentage of stems 
in Cloves shall be 5 per cent, and of moisture not more than 16%. 
The permissible percentage of loose lime in Japan Ginger shall be 

2 per cent, as determined by sifting through a No. 30 sieve. 

6. WEIGHTS. All merchandise shall be weighed at the place 
of delivery at the seller's expense by a licensed public weigher, 
who shall issue a Certificate of Weight therefor and such Certifi- 
cate of Weights shall be binding on all parties, unless fraud is 
proven, provided, however, that a delivery shall not be made more 
than fourteen days from date of such Certificate of Weight, with 
the exception of the articles hereinafter mentioned. 

Certificate of Weight covering Black Pepper shall be valid more 
than fourteen days provided, however, that when a delivery is 
made later than the fourteenth day from the date of such Certifi- 
cate of Weight, the seller, unless he elects to reweigh, in computing 
his invoice to the buyer shall credit an allowance for shrinkage 
on the basis of one-eighth of one per cent per month from the 
date of the Certificate of Weight, for the first twelve months, and 
one-twelfth of 1 per cent for the next twelve months. Such Certif- 
icate of Weight shall be valid not more than two years, provided 
the Pepper covered by such Certificate has not been moved, if 
weighed in warehouse, during such period; dock weights more 
than fourteen days old shall be valid provided the Pepper was 
moved into warehouse immediately after weighing and has not 
been moved while in warehouse. The buyer, at his option and at 
his own expense, which shall include cost of repiling, with due 
notice to the seller on receipt of the delivery order or warehouse 
receipt, may cause any lot of Pepper to be reweighed, in which 
case reweights shall be the basis of the final invoice. 

7. TARES. Pepper, Black and White, 2 per cent; Pimento, 

3 lbs. per bag; Ceylon Cinnamon, 3 lbs. per bale; Tapioca, 2 lbs. 
per bag. 



194 The Spice Handbook 

All other spices, seeds and herbs in bags or bales, unless other- 
wise provided for; average actual, to be ascertained by taring a 
certain percentage of the sound portion of each chop or invoice, 
as follows: 100 packages or more, 5 per cent; less than 100 
packages, 10 per cent (such percentages to be at least the average 
gross weight of the chop or invoice) to be tared to the ounce and 
adjusted to the quarter-pound, each fraction of a quarter of a 
pound to be carried to the next higher quarter-pound. 

On all spices and seeds in cases or barrels : marked tares shall 
govern unless proved to be wrong by a public weigher's certificate. 

In case of packing in double bags, average actual tares of the 
outside bag to be allowed. This rule to apply on all commodities. 
Weighers' returns of tares to state the gross weight of every 
package tared. 

8. DELIVERY. When the subject matter and terms of con- 
tracts are identical, or identical except as to date and price, each 
seller other than the first shall be at liberty to tender during the 
three business hours following the receipt of the tender made to 
him but not after 4:30 p.m. local time, although his tender is 
beyond the time specified in the contract by the first seller, pro- 
vided the first seller shall have made his tender within the time 
allowed by the contract for the purpose, and provided each inter- 
mediate seller between himself and the first seller shall have made 
his tender within the time allowed him for the purpose. 

9. FIRE OR DESTRUCTION. In the event of damage or 
loss caused by fire, floods, riots or civil commotion, whereby a 
quantity of not less than one quarter of the entire stock of 
Black Pepper stored in public warehouses or docks in New York 
shall be destroyed or rendered untenderable, the first seller and 
each subsequent seller shall be entitled to an extension of two full 
calendar months on all Pepper deliverable during the calendar 
month during which such destruction occurs and on all deliveries 
during the following calendar month. 

10. STORAGE. When delivery is made on dock, the first 
seller shall provide, at his expense, free dockage for at least seven 
full business days (Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays excepted), 



Appendix 195 

from the delivery date. When delivery is made from warehouse, 
the first seller shall pay charges, storage and labor in and out 
up to and including seven full business days (Saturdays, Sun- 
days, and holidays excepted), after the date of delivery, and if 
such charges and/or storage are unpaid, shall deduct the amount 
of the unpaid storage and charges from the invoice. The buyer 
shall enjoy the benefit of any unexpired storage. When an article 
is delivered "in bond," the seller shall present to the buyer, in 
addition to other documents required, a United States Govern- 
ment Withdrawal Permit, valid for not less than six (6) calendar 
months from the date on which delivery of the article is made. 
Such permit shall bear the marks and location of the article. 

11. DEFAULTS. Whenever it shall be admitted by the seller, 
or decided by arbitration, that either party has failed to fulfill 
the terms of this contract, and is, therefore, in default, the con- 
tract shall be settled as follows : The buyer shall invoice the mer- 
chandise back to the seller at a price and weight to be fixed by 
arbitration, the price to be the market value on the day of default, 
as established by arbitration, which price shall not be less than 
2% and not more than 10% over the estimated market value 
established on the day of default. The difference to be paid in 
cash within ten days from the date of the arbitration award. 

12. INSOLVENCY OF BUYER OR SELLER. If before 
the maturity of this contract, either party liable on the face thereof 
shall suspend payment, or be a defaulter, or commit an act of 
bankruptcy, or issue a notice convening a meeting of his creditors, 
or become bankrupt or insolvent, or fails to meet his general 
trade obligations in the regular course of business, this contract 
shall thereupon be closed (forty-eight hours' notice having been 
previously given to him) at a price to be fixed by arbitration. 

13. ARBITRATION. The following regulations shall govern 
all arbitrations held under this contract. 

A. QUALITY. Unless it can be shown by the buyer that it 
was impossible to do so, arbitration of all disputes as to quality 
of merchandise and/or claims for allowance in price between 
buyer and seller shall be demanded within ten business days after 



196 The Spice Handbook 

the parcel is delivered. Individual samples for arbitration shall 
be drawn and sealed by a public sampler in the presence of repre- 
sentatives of both parties to the contract and shall be drawn from 
at least 10 per cent of each chop or invoice. Failure promptly 
to appoint a representative to supervise sampling will be con- 
sidered as a waiver of the privilege and samples drawn in good 
faith by order of the other party, shall be used by the arbitrators. 
For clauses B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, relating to arbitration 
see the Standard Arrival Contract. 

14. FORCE MAJEURE. This contract is subject to Force 
Majeure. In case the seller is unable to ship within contract time 
on account of prohibition of exports, fires, strikes, lockouts, riots, 
war, revolution or other case of Force Majeure, the shipping 
period is automatically extended one month. 

15. MODIFICATIONS. Any part of this contract written 
or inserted on the reverse side hereof, shall modify the rules 
printed on this side. 



Standard Domestic A Contract 

of the 

American Spice Trade Association 

As amended, effective on and after Sept. 1, 1944 

New York, N. Y. 

Sold for account of M 

to M 

Quantity, about 

Article 

Quality 

Price 

(Any Federal, State and Municipal taxes shall be for account 
of buyer) 
Shipment] 

\ during . 

Delivery J 



Appendix 197 
19 , direct or indirect to 

Terms 

Weights 

Tares 

Insurance 

Insurance to include war risk according to American Institute 
form or equivalent prevailing at the time of shipment, if sold 
C. I. F., seller to cover at his expense marine and war risk in- 
surance to destination, unless otherwise stipulated, but any 
expense for covering war risk in excess of one-half of one per 
cent (J4%) to-be for account of buyers. Rate of insurance 
to be approximately that ruling in New York at the time of 
shipment. 

All questions and controversies not adjusted by mutual agree- 
ment, and all claims arising under this contract shall be submitted 
to and settled by Arbitration under the Rules of The American 
Spice Trade Association printed on the reverse side hereof. This 
contract is made as of in New York. 

WAIVER OF PERSONAL SERVICE 

Each party to a submission or other agreement which provides 
for arbitration under these rules, shall be deemed to have consented 
that any papers, notices or process necessary or proper for the 
institution or continuation of an arbitration proceeding under 
these rules or for the confirmation of an award and entry of 
judgment on an award made thereunder, including appeals in 
connection therewith, may be served upon such party (a) by mail 
addressed to such party's last known address or (b) by personal 
service, within or without the State wherein the arbitration is 
to be held, or within or without the limits of the jurisdiction of 
the Court having jurisdiction in the premises (whether such party 
be within or without the United States of America) or (c) where 
a party to a controversy is not located in the City of New York, 
by mail or personally, as provided in (a) and (b) hereof, upon 
his agent or broker through whom the contract was made; pro- 



198 The Spice Handbook 

vided that a reasonable time shall be allowed such party to appear 

and defend. 

ACCEPTED 



Signature. 

Rules for Standard Domestic A Contract 

1. DISPUTES. Any question, controversy or claim whatever 
between buyer and seller, arising out of this contract, not adjusted 
by mutual agreement, shall be settled by arbitration in New York 
under the rules herein provided. 

2. QUANTITY. It is understood that the word "about" ap- 
plied to quantity contracted for, means the nearest amount which 
sellers should fairly and reasonably deliver, but no excess or 
deficiency to be greater than 2 l / 2 per cent. Unless otherwise 
specified, the ton shall be considered 2,000 pounds. 

3. SHIPMENT. Prompt, shall mean shipment within four- 
teen days. The date of shipment shall be, prima facie, the date of 
the Bill of Lading covering the merchandise. 

4. LANDING WEIGHTS. Landing weights shall be the 
actual gross weights ; the goods to be weighed at seller's expense 
by public weighers, as soon as practicable after landing, in such 
lots as may be requested by buyers in writing within three days 
after the arrival of vessel and/or other carrier. 

5. DATE OF DELIVERY. Shall be the final date of weigh- 
ing; or when the goods are not to be weighed, the last date of 
vessels' and/or other carriers' receipts, but in either case not later 
than ten days after landing; except that in case of missing pack- 
ages, such missing packages shall be invoiced separately if and 
when delivered, provided such delivery is within thirty days. 

In the event of the merchandise being detained by the Food 
and Drug Administration of the Federal Security Agency or Suc- 
cessor Agency or Agencies, date of invoice shall be date of re- 
lease. This rule not to apply to C. I. F. and C. & F. contract. 

6. U. S. A. REGULATIONS. All spices, seeds or herbs 



Appendix 199 

purchased under this contract shall comply with the rules and 
standards under which the Food and Drug Administration of 
the Federal Security Agency or Successor Agency or Agencies 
enforces the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of June 25, 1938, and 
amendments thereto, at date of signing of this contract. If any 
such merchandise must be recleaned or repicked to comply with 
these standards, the expense and loss in weight incident thereto 
shall be for the account of the seller; any reasonable loss in weight 
on reconditioning to be considered part of tender. 

Should such merchandise fail to comply with these Govern- 
ment standards after the seller has made every reasonable effort 
with due diligence, including recleaning and repicking, to make 
it pass, the buyer shall still have the option to accept the mer- 
chandise; otherwise, the contract shall be considered cancelled, 
excepting should such merchandise be inferior to contract descrip- 
tion, it shall not be a proper tender against the contract. 

Where goods are sold to be released by the Food and Drug 
Administration or no sale, expenses of storage, labor, cartage 
and insurance pending decision, shall be borne by seller if ex- 
cluded arid by buyer if released. 

Sound and damaged merchandise to be taken by the buyer. Al- 
lowance for damage to be determined by arbitration or other- 
wise. Should the quality of the damaged portion in the opinion 
of the arbitrators be unmerchantable, buyer shall have the option 
of rejecting the damaged portion, but seller shall have the right 
to replace the rejected quantity from dock or vessel and/or other 
carrier within the contract period or within ten days from date 
of arbitration decision. 

Under a C. I. F. or C. & F. contract: This rule not to apply 
to any portion of the shipment arriving in a damaged condition, 
if said damage is caused during the voyage, provided that the 
sound merchandise is up to contract description. 

7. LOSS OF VESSEL. Should any vessel or vessels and/or 
the merchandise thereon, or any portion, which may apply to this 
contract, be lost before declaration, this contract shall be cancelled 
and void so far as regards such lost vessel or vessels and/or the 



200 The Spice Handbook 

merchandise, on the production of satisfactory proofs of ship- 
ment by sellers as soon as practicable after said loss is ascertained. 
Should any vessel or vessels and/or the merchandise or any portion 
be lost after declaration, the contract shall be cancelled and void 
for such amount as shall be lost. Should the merchandise or any 
portion of it be transshipped to any other vessel or vessels and 
arrive for account of the original importer, the contract shall 
stand good for such portion. 

However, should such losses occur of merchandise sold under 
C. & F. and/or C. I. F. contract conditions, the buyer shall take 
up proper documents tendered by the seller in accordance with 
the terms and conditions of the contract. 

A. Merchandise sold under a C. I. F. contract to be insured 
by sellers at the price of the contract; free of particular average 
under 3 per cent, in series of not more than ten packages, each 
separately insured. 

8. DEFAULT OF SELLER. Whenever it shall be admitted 
by the seller or decided by arbitration that the seller has failed 
to fulfill the terms of his contract, and is, therefore, in default, 
the contract shall be settled as follows : The buyer shall invoice 
the merchandise back to the seller at a price and weight to be 
fixed by arbitration, the price to be the market value on the day 
of default as specified by arbitration, which price shall not be 
less than 2 per cent and not more than 10 per cent over the market 
value established as of the day of default ; the weight, in case the 
contract calls for shipping weights, to be the full contract weight, 
and in the case of landing weights, the full contract weight less 
reasonable and usual loss in weight. The difference to be paid 
in cash within ten days from the date of the arbitration award. 

9. INSOLVENCY OF BUYER OR SELLER. If before the 
maturity of this contract, either party liable on the face thereof 
shall suspend payment, or, be a defaulter, or, commit an act of 
bankruptcy, or, issue a notice convening a meeting of his creditors, 
or, become bankrupt or insolvent, or, fails to meet his general 
trade obligations in the regular course of business, this contract 



Appendix 201 

shall thereupon be closed (forty-eight hours' notice having been 
previously given to him) at a price to be fixed by arbitration. 

10. ARBITRATION. The following regulations shall govern 
all arbitrations held under this contract. 

A. QUALITY. Unless it can be shown by the buyer that it 
was impossible to do so, arbitration of all disputes as to quality of 
merchandise and/or claims for allowance in price between buyer 
and seller shall be demanded within ten business days after the 
parcel is landed, and samples shall be drawn from the parcel on 
the wharf and/or terminal, unless the entire parcel shall have been 
meanwhile stored in public warehouse, in which case samples 
shall be drawn within five business days after the parcel shall 
have been so housed and arbitration shall be held within six weeks 
of arrival of vessel and/or other carrier. Individual samples for 
arbitration shall be drawn and sealed by a public sampler in the 
presence of representatives of both parties to the contract and shall 
be drawn from at least 10 per cent of each chop or invoice. Failure 
promptly to appoint a representative to supervise sampling will 
be considered as a waiver of the privilege and samples drawn 
in good faith by order of the other party, shall be used by the 
arbitrators. 

For clauses B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, relating to arbitration, 
see the Standard Arrival Contract. 

11. FORCE MAJEURE. This contract is subject to Force 
Majeure. In case the seller is unable to ship within contract time 
on account of prohibition of exports, fires, strikes, lockouts, riots, 
war, revolution or other case of Force Majeure, the shipping 
period is automatically extended one month. 

12. MODIFICATIONS. Any part of this contract written 
or inserted on the reverse side hereof, shall modify the rules printed 
on this side. 



202 The Spice Handbook 

Standard Domestic B Contract 

of the 

American Spice Trade Association 

Effective on and after Sept. 1, 1944 

New York, N. Y. 

Sold for account of M 

to M 

Quantity, about 

Article 

Quality 

Price 

(Any Federal, State and Municipal taxes shall be for account 

of buyer) 

Shipment) 

\ during 



Delivery J 



19 , direct or indirect to 



Terms 

Weights 

Tares 

Insurance 

Insurance to include war risk according to American Institute 
form or equivalent prevailing at the time of shipment, if sold 
C. I. F., seller to cover at his expense marine and war risk in- 
surance to destination, unless otherwise stipulated, but any 
expense for covering war risk in excess of one-half of one 
per cent ( J4%) to be for account of buyers. Rate of insurance 
to be approximately that ruling in New York at the time of 
shipment. 

All questions and controversies not adjusted by mutual agree- 
ment, and all claims arising under this contract shall be submitted 
to and settled by Arbitration under the Rules of The American 
Spice Trade Association printed on the reverse side hereof. This 
contract is made as of in New York. 



Appendix 203 

WAIVER OF PERSONAL SERVICE 

Each party to a submission or other agreement which provides 
for arbitration under these rules, shall be deemed to have consented 
that any papers, notices or process necessary or proper for the 
institution or continuation of an arbitration proceeding- under 
these rules or for the confirmation of an award and entry of 
judgment on an award made thereunder, including appeals in 
connection therewith, may be served upon such party (a) by mail 
addressed to such party's last known address or (b) by personal 
service, within or without the State wherein the arbitration is to 
be held, or within or without the limits of the jurisdiction of the 
Court having jurisdiction in the premises (whether such party 
be within or without the United States of America) or (c) where 
a party to a controversy is not located in the City of New York, 
by mail or personally, as provided in (a) and (b) hereof, upon 
his agent or broker through whom the contract was made; pro- 
vided that a reasonable time shall be allowed such party to appear 
and defend. 

ACCEPTED 

Signature. 

Rules for Standard Domestic B Contract 

1. DISPUTES. Any question, controversy or claim whatever 
between buyer and seller, arising out of this contract, not adjusted 
by mutual agreement, shall be settled by arbitration in New 
York under the rules herein provided. 

2. QUANTITY. It is understood that the word "about" ap- 
plied to quantity contracted for, means the nearest amount which 
sellers should fairly and reasonably deliver, but no excess or 
deficiency to be greater than 2 l / 2 per cent. Unless otherwise 
specified, the ton shall be considered 2,000 pounds. 

3. SHIPMENT. Prompt, shall mean shipment within four- 
teen days. The date of shipment shall be, prima facie, the date 
of the Bill of Lading covering the merchandise. 



204 The Spice Handbook 

4. LANDING WEIGHTS. Landing weights shall be the 
actual gross weights ; the goods to be weighed at seller's expense 
by public weighers, as soon as practicable after landing, in such 
lots as may be requested by buyers in writing within three days 
after the arrival of vessel, and/or other carrier. 

5. DATE OF DELIVERY. Shall be the final date of weigh- 
ing; or when the goods are not to be weighed, the last date of 
vessel's and/or other carriers' receipts, but in either case not 
later than ten days after landing, except that in case of missing 
packages, such missing packages shall be invoiced separately if 
and when delivered, provided such delivery is within thirty days. 

In the event of the merchandise being detained by the Food 
and Drug Administration of the Federal Security Agency or 
Successor Agency or Agencies, date of invoice shall be date of 
release. This rule not to apply to C. I. F. and C. & F. contract. 

6. U. S. A. REGULATIONS. All spices, seeds or herbs 
purchased under this contract shall comply with the rules and 
standards under which the Food and Drug Administration of 
the Federal Security Agency or Successor Agency or Agencies 
enforces the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of June 25, 1938, and 
amendments thereto, at date of signing of this contract. If any 
such merchandise must be recleaned or repicked to comply with 
these standards, the expense and loss in weight incident thereto 
shall be for the account of the seller; any reasonable loss in 
weight on reconditioning to be considered part of tender. 

y Should such merchandise fail to comply with these Govern- 
ment standards after the seller has made every reasonable effort 
with due diligence, including recleaning and repicking, to make 
it pass, the buyer shall still have the option to accept the mer- 
chandise; otherwise, the contract shall be considered cancelled, 
excepting should such merchandise be inferior to contract de- 
scription, it shall not be a proper tender against the contract. 

Where goods are sold to be released by the Food and Drug 
Administration or no sale, expenses of storage, labor, cartage 
and insurance pending decision, shall be borne by seller if ex- 
cluded and by buyer if released. 






Appendix 205 

Sound and damaged merchandise to be taken by the buyer. 
Allowance for damage to be determined by arbitration or other- 
wise. Should the quality of the damaged portion in the opinion 
of the arbitrators be unmerchantable, buyer shall have the option 
of rejecting the damaged portion, but seller shall have the right 
to replace the rejected quantity from dock or vessel and/or other 
carrier within the contract period or within ten days from date 
of arbitration decision. 

Under a C. I. F. or C. & F. contract : This rule not to apply 
to any portion of the shipment arriving in a damaged condition, 
if said damage is caused during the voyage, provided that the 
sound merchandise is up to contract description. 

7. PRODUCTION. The seller agrees to plant or to have 
planted, or contracts or to have contracted to be planted, during 
the current planting season an acreage of land which will pro- 
duce, under normal conditions, an amount of the customary 
grade of the article sold under this contract, sufficient to enable 
the seller to deliver to the buyer the merchandise herein specified. 

8. It is understood and agreed that, in case there shall be 
prior to the planting, due to fire, accident, or otherwise, any 
damage to, or the destruction of, any portion of seller's stock 
seed, already on hand, or any portion of such material already 
contracted for, or which may hereafter be contracted for, ap- 
propriated for planting, as provided in Rule 7; or in case of 
partial or total failure of any or all of the crops to be planted 
by seller, provided in Rule 7 ; or in case there shall be subsequent 
to harvesting, due to fire, accident, or otherwise, any damage to, 
or the destruction of, any portion of the merchandise produced, 
as provided herein, which seller may happen to be holding await- 
ing shipment, seller shall be obligated to deliver only proportional 
quantities, such proportional quantities to be computed on the 
following basis : 

A. The seller agrees that his total sales prior to the deter- 
mination of the crop yield as provided in Rule 7 shall not ex- 
ceed the pre-calculated production, based on an average yield of 
the last five years. 



206 The Spice Handbook 

B. Should the production, based upon the conditions set forth 
above, prove to be less than seller's pre-harvest total sales, seller 
should be obligated to deliver to buyer only such proportion as 
the total quantity produced bears to seller's total sales. Seller 
shall have the right, in any event, to reserve for its stock seed, 
for next season's planting, the normal quantity of same. The 
quantity so reserved shall be deducted from the total production 
before pro rating. 

9. The seller's fulfillment of this contract is contingent upon 
strikes, fires, accidents, riots, delays of carriers, actions of govern- 
mental authorities, and on other causes beyond the seller's con- 
trol. 

10. LOSS OF VESSEL. Should any vessel or vessels and/or 
the merchandise thereon, or any portion, which may apply to this 
contract, be lost before declaration, this contract shall be can- 
celled and void so far as regards such lost vessel or vessels and/or 
the merchandise, on the production of satisfactory proofs of 
shipment by sellers as soon as practicable after said loss is as- 
certained. Should any vessel or vessels and/or the merchandise 
or any portion be lost after declaration, the contract shall be 
cancelled and void for such amount as shall be lost. Should the 
merchandise or any portion of it be transshipped to any other 
vessel or vessels and arrive for account of the original importer, 
the contract shall stand good for such portion. 

However, should such losses occur of merchandise sold under 
C. & F. and/or C. I. F. contract conditions, the buyer shall take 
up proper documents tendered by the seller in accordance with 
the terms and conditions of the contract. 

A. Merchandise sold under a C. I. F. contract to be insured 
by sellers at the price of the contract ; free of particular average 
under 3 per cent, in series of not more than ten packages, each 
separately insured. 

11. DEFAULT OF SELLER. Whenever it shall be admitted 
by the seller or decided by arbitration that the seller has failed 
to fulfill the terms of his contract, and is, therefore, in default, 



Appendix 207 

the contract shall be settled as follows: The buyer shall invoice 
the merchandise back to the seller at a price and weight to be 
fixed by arbitration, the price to be the market value on the 
day of default which price shall not be less than 2 per cent and 
not more than 10 per cent over the market value established as 
of the day of default; the weight, in case the contract calls for 
shipping weights, to be the full contract weight, and in the case 
of landing weights, the full contract weight less reasonable and 
usual loss in weight. The difference to be paid in cash within 
ten days from the date of the arbitration award. 

12. INSOLVENCY OF BUYER OR SELLER. If before 
the maturity of this contract, either party liable on the face 
thereof shall suspend payment, or, be a -defaulter, or, commit 
an act of bankruptcy, or, issue a notice convening a meeting of 
his creditors, or, become bankrupt or insolvent, or, fails to meet 
his general trade obligations in the regular course of business, 
this contract shall thereupon be closed (forty-eight hours' notice 
having been previously given to him) at a price to be fixed by 
arbitration. 

13. ARBITRATION. The following regulations shall govern 
all arbitrations held under this contract. 

A. QUALITY. Unless it can be shown by the buyer that 
it was impossible to do so, arbitration of all disputes as to quality 
of merchandise and/or claims for allowance in price between 
buyer and seller shall be demanded within ten business days 
after the parcel is landed, and samples shall be drawn from the 
parcel on the wharf and/or terminal unless the entire parcel 
shall have been meanwhile stored in public warehouse, in which 
case samples shall be drawn within five business days after the 
parcel shall have been so housed and arbitration shall be held 
within six weeks of arrival of vessel and/or other carrier. In- 
dividual samples for arbitration shall be drawn and sealed by 
a public sampler in the presence of representatives of both parties 
to the contract and shall be drawn from at least 10 per cent of 
each chop or invoice. Failure promptly to appoint a representa- 



208 The Spice Handbook 

tive to supervise sampling will be considered as a waiver of the 
privilege and samples drawn in good faith by order of the other 
party, shall be used by the arbitrators. 

For clauses B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, relating to arbitration, 
see the Standard Arrival Contract. 

14. FORCE MAJEURE. This contract is subject to Force 
Majeure. In case the seller is unable to ship within contract time 
on account of prohibition of exports, fires, strikes, lockouts, 
riots, war, revolution or other case of Force Majeure, the shipping 
period is automatically extended one month. 

15. MODIFICATIONS. Any part of this contract written 
or inserted on the reverse side hereof, shall modify the rules 
printed on this side. 

Standard Spot Contract 

of 

The American Spice Trade Association 

As amended, effective on and after Sept. 1, 1944 

New York, N. Y. 

Sold for account of M 

to M 

Quantity, about 

Article 

Quality 

Price 

Terms 

Privilege of Storage, Fire Insurance 

and Weighing until (minimum 10 days) 

Weights, New York Weights and customary tares, as per re- 
verse of this contract. 

Shipping directions 

All questions and controversies, and all claims arising under 

this contract shall be submitted to and settled by Arbitration 

under the Rules of The American Spice Trade Association printed 






Appendix 209 

on the reverse side hereof. This contract is made as of in New 
York. 



WAIVER OF PERSONAL SERVICE 

Each party to a submission or other agreement which provides 
for arbitration under these rules, shall be deemed to have con- 
sented that any papers, notices or process necessary or proper 
for the institution or continuation of an arbitration proceeding 
under these rules or for the confirmation of an award and entry 
of judgment on an award made thereunder, including appeals 
in connection therewith, may be served upon such party (a) by 
mail addressed to such party's last known address or (b) by 
personal service, within or without the State wherein the ar- 
bitration is to be held, or within or without the limits of the 
jurisdiction of the Court having jurisdiction in the premises 
(whether such party be within or without the United States of 
America) or (c) where a party to a controversy is not located 
in the City of New York, by mail or personally, as provided 
in (a) and (b) hereof, upon his agent or broker through whom 
the contract was made; provided that a reasonable time shall 
be allowed such party to appear and defend. 

ACCEPTED 



Signature. 

Rules for Standard Spot Contract 

1. DISPUTES. Any question, controversy or claim whatever 
between buyer and seller, arising out of this contract not ad- 
justed by mutual agreement, shall be settled by arbitration in 
New York under the rules herein provided. 

2. QUANTITY. It is understood that the word "about" 
applied to quantity contracted for, means the nearest amount 
which sellers should fairly and reasonably deliver, but no excess 
to be greater than 2*4 per cent or deficiency greater than 7*/2 



210 The Spice Handbook 

per cent. Unless otherwise specified, the ton shall be considered 
2,240 pounds. 

3. DELIVERY. On spot sales ex dock or warehouse for ship- 
ment to other points, the invoice date, unless otherwise specified, 
shall be the date of valid shipping receipt or Bill of Lading. 
In case shipping shall be delayed or deferred by the neglect 
of buyers to furnish shipping directions permitting immediate 
shipment, the invoice date shall be the date of the contract. On 
spot sales to local buyers, the invoice date shall be the date on 
which valid delivery order or storage receipt is tendered by 
sellers to buyers. On sales where approximate amount is payable 
on account, such payment shall be 90% of the amount of a 
reasonable, approximate invoice, unless otherwise specified. 

A. On spot sales of merchandise involving storage, insurance 
and weighing privileges, the date of delivery shall be the date 
when sellers are prepared to make transfer according to contract. 

B. If merchandise in warehouse sold for prompt delivery, or 
future spot delivery, shall be destroyed by fire, water or other 
acts of God, the seller shall not be required to make any other 
delivery on such sale, provided he has, previous to destruction, 
declared the marks and quantities of said merchandise. 

C. In case the buyer shall question the quality of any delivery 
of merchandise after it has been received by him, the merchandise 
shall not be returned or disposed of in any way, until the matter 
shall have been decided by mutual agreement, or failing in the 
latter, by arbitration, as per Rule 1. 

D. On spot sales for shipment to other points, prices shall be 
held to include cartage to transportation lines, unless otherwise 
specifically noted in the contract. 

4. TARES. Pepper, Black and White, 2 per cent; Pimento, 
3 lbs. per bag; Ceylon Cinnamon, 3 lbs. per bale; Tapioca, 2 lbs. 
per bag. 

All other spices, seeds and herbs in bags or bales; average 
actual, to be ascertained by taring a certain percentage of the 
sound portion of each chop or invoice, as follows : 100 packages 
or more, 5 per cent; less than 100 packages, 10 per cent (such 






Appendix 211 

percentages to be at least the average gross weight of the chop 
or invoice) to be tared to the ounce and adjusted to the quarter- 
pound, each fraction of a quarter of a pound to be carried to 
the next higher quarter-pound. 

All spices and seeds in cases or barrels : Tares to be ascertained 
by taking a test tare of 5 per cent on each 100 packages and 10 
per cent on less than 100 packages, taking the marked tares, and 
adjusting up or down according to the gain or loss shown by the 
test tares. In case of no marked tares, actual tares to govern. 

In case of packing in double bags, the outside bag shall be 
average actual. This rule to apply on all commodities. Weighers' 
returns of tares to state the gross weight of every package tared. 

5. STANDARDS. All spices, seeds or herbs purchased under 
this contract shall comply with the rules under which the Food 
and Drug Administration of the Federal Security Agency or 
Successor Agency or Agencies enforce the Food, Drug and Cos- 
metic Act of June 25, 1938, and amendments thereto, to date 
of signing this contract. 

All Pepper shall be subject to allowance if it contains a greater 
percentage of dust, dirt, stems, chaff or extraneous matter than 
is customary in Pepper of its kind, and in no case to exceed 3 
per cent as determined by sifting through a No. 9^4 roundhole 
sieve. The permissible percentage of stems in Cloves shall be 
5 per cent. The permissible percentage of moisture in Cloves 
shall not exceed 16% by the Toluol method. The permissible 
percentage of loose lime in Japan Ginger shall be 2 per cent as 
determined by sifting through a No. 30 sieve. 

6. DEFAULTS. Whenever it shall be admitted by the seller, 
or decided by arbitration, that the seller has failed to fulfill 
the terms of his contract, and is, therefore, in default, the con- 
tract shall be settled as follows : The buyer shall invoice the 
merchandise back to the seller at a price and weight to be fixed 
by arbitration, which price shall not be less than 2% and not 
more than 10% over the estimated market value established on 
the day of default. The difference to be paid in cash within ten 
days from the date of the arbitration award. 



212 The Spice Handbook 

7. INSOLVENCY OF BUYER OR SELLER. If before the 
maturity of this contract, either party liable on the face thereof 
shall suspend payment, or be a defaulter, or commit an act of 
bankruptcy, or issue a notice convening a meeting of his creditors, 
or become bankrupt or insolvent, or fails to meet his general 
trade obligations in the regular course of business, this contract 
shall thereupon be closed (forty-eight hours' notice having been 
previously given to him) at a price to be fixed by arbitration. 

8. ARBITRATION. The following regulations shall govern 
all arbitrations held under this contract. 

A. QUALITY. Unless it can be shown by the buyer that it 
was impossible to do so, arbitration of all disputes as to quality 
or merchandise and/or claims for allowance in price between 
buyer and seller shall be demanded within ten business days 
after the parcel is delivered. Individual samples for arbitration 
shall be drawn and sealed by a public sampler in the presence 
of representatives of both parties to the contract and shall be 
drawn from at least 10 per cent of each chop or invoice. Failure 
promptly to appoint a representative to supervise sampling will 
be considered as a waiver of the privilege and samples drawn in 
good faith by order of the other party, shall be used by the ar- 
bitrators. 

9. FORCE MAJEURE. This contract is subject to Force 
Majeure. In case the seller is unable to ship within contract time 
on account of prohibition of exports, fires, strikes, lockouts, riots, 
war, revolution or other case of Force Majeure, the shipping 
period is automatically extended one month. 

10. MODIFICATIONS. Any part of this contract written 
or inserted on the reverse side hereof, shall modify the rules 
printed on this side. 

For clauses B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, relating to arbitration, 
see the Standard Arrival Contract. 



Appendix 213 

Standard Grinders Contract 

of 

The American Spice Trade Association 

As amended, effective on and after January 26, 1942 

Date.... 19.... 

AGREE TO SELL 

and AGREE TO BUY 

merchandise herein described, according to the terms and condi- 
tions named below. 
QUANTITY ARTICLE PRICE PACKING 

F. O. B Terms 

Time of Delivery, From To 

Terms and Conditions 

If the delivery period for this contract extends over ninety days 
the prices mentioned herein shall be subject to revision at the end 
of each ninety day period, based on actual increases or decreases 
in seller's price list. 

The buyer shall give the seller reasonable notice covering ship- 
ments and shall take deliveries in approximately equal monthly 
quantities except as may be otherwise provided herein, and if 
buyer shall fail during any month to order out such monthly quota, 
seller may at his option cancel it from the contract, by written 
notice to the buyer. 

Seller shall not be liable for non-delivery hereunder caused 
by act of God, war conditions, governmental, state or municipal 
regulations or action, embargo, fire, flood, accident, strike or 
other labor trouble, transportation difficulty, or, without con- 
struing the foregoing as words of limitation, any other cause 
beyond seller's control. 

Seller reserves the right, with respect to "all goods undelivered 
hereunder, by notice to buyer, to increase or decrease the prices 



214 The Spice Handbook 

named herein to cover any change in insurance, in excise and/or 
other taxes and/or any increase or decrease in import duties that 
may be levied after the date hereof. 

Prices in this contract are based on prevailing transportation 
rates at time of sale and any increase or decrease shall be for ac- 
count of buyer. 

Upon written notification, the seller may decline to make de- 
liveries on this contract, except for cash, whenever the seller 
shall have reason to doubt the buyer's responsibility. 

Disputes. Any question, controversy, or claim whatever, be- 
tween buyer and seller, arising out of this contract, not adjusted 
by mutual agreement, shall be settled by arbitration to be held 
at the point of sale under the rules of arbitration procedure of 
The American Spice Trade Association, with which rules both 
parties are familiar. 

Subject to other terms and conditions on the back hereof. 

BUYER 

SELLER 

Package Differentials 

The following differentials apply to ground spices, seeds or 
herbs, over the barrel basis : 



Bags of 125 lbs. 


$ 


per lb. less 


Drums of 100 lbs. 


$ 


" more 


Drums of 50 lbs. 


$ 


t{ it 


Drums of 25 lbs. 


$ 


n u 


10— lb. Wooden Boxes 


$ 


a a 


6— lb. Wooden Boxes 


$ 


u a 


10-lb. Fibre Boxes 


$ 


tt tt 


6— lb. Fibre boxes 


$ 


tt it 



Rules for Arbitration of the Standard Grinders Contract 

A. QUALITY. Should a question arise in respect to quality, 
individual samples shall be drawn and sealed by a disinterested 
party in the presence of representatives of both parties to the 
contract within fifteen days of receipt of shipment. 



Appendix 215 

B. ARBITRATORS. Each disputant shall appoint a disin- 
terested party as arbitrator. If either disputant shall neglect to 
appoint an arbitrator within five days after notice in writing is 
received by him from the other disputant of the appointment of his 
arbitrator, the President of The American Spice Trade Associa- 
tion shall appoint the other arbitrator upon a written request from 
either party to the dispute. Disputants may appoint one person 
to act as sole arbitrator. 

C. UMPIRE. The two arbitrators shall select a third disin- 
terested party as umpire, who shall meet and act with the ar- 
bitrators in the decision of the arbitration, and shall act as Chair- 
man thereof. If the arbitrators shall fail to select the umpire 
within seven business days from their appointment, the President 
shall appoint the umpire upon request in writing from either 
arbitrator. Both parties shall be duly notified of the date of hear- 
ing and entitled to be present thereat. 

D. AWARD. The award of such arbitrators and umpire or 
sole arbitrator shall be final and binding on both parties, unless 
within five business days after receipt of the award, an appeal 
be lodged with the Secretary of The American Spice Trade As- 
sociation by either disputant. Settlements under an arbitration 
award or award of the Arbitration Committee shall be made 
within ten days from the date of such award, and if not so settled, 
judgment may be entered thereon in accordance with the practice 
of any Court having jurisdiction. 

E. APPEAL. All appeals shall be heard by the Arbitration 
Committee, which shall consider cases decided by arbitrators and 
umpires, and shall sustain, reverse or modify same. They shall 
have the right to remand appeals to the arbitrators and umpires 
for rearbitration. If, on any appeal, any member of the Arbitra- 
tion Committee shall be an interested party in the transaction, or 
contract in question, his place shall be taken for that appeal by 
the member on the list of Arbitration Committee Alternates next 
in rotation for service. Three business days' notice of the hearing 
of the appeal shall be given by the Secretary to the disputants and 
to the arbitrators and umpire whose award is appealed against, 



216 The Spice Handbook 

and they shall be entitled to be present and to be heard upon the 
matter in question. Not less than five of the Arbitration Commit- 
tee being present, the decision of the majority shall be the final 
and binding decision of the appeal. 

F. BRIEFS. On appeals, other than those involving quality 
only, each appellant and respondent shall deliver to the Secretary 
of the Association seven copies of the brief or statement covering 
his case, duly sworn to, at least 48 hours before the time set for 
the appeal. 

G. FEES. Unless otherwise divided or awarded by the ar- 
bitrators and umpire, or the Arbitration Committee, the fees for 
arbitration or appeal shall be finally paid by the losing party. 

The fees for arbitrators and umpires shall be $10 each in all 
cases, and in addition a $10 fee to the Association. In case the 
two disputants agree upon a single member, who shall act as the 
sole arbitrator, instead of two arbitrators and an umpire, the 
fee for the sole arbitrator shall be $20 in all cases, and in ad- 
dition a fee of $10 to the Association. If an appeal shall be 
decided in favor of the appellant, the appeal fee of $50 shall be 
returned to the appellant and the respondent shall pay the appeal 
fee of $50. 

Arbitrators and umpires shall be awarded extra fees by the 
Arbitration Committee, if, in the judgment of the Committee 
the said arbitrators and umpire shall have performed unusual 
or extraordinary services during the arbitration on which they 
shall have served. 

H. OATHS. In all arbitrations and appeals, the arbitrators, 
umpire, and members of the Arbitration Committee, shall, before 
acting, subscribe to the usual legal oath of office. In all arbitra- 
tions and appeal hearings, all witnesses and principals giving oral 
evidence shall be duly sworn in the usual manner. Awards must 
be legally acknowledged. All notary fees to be paid as awarded 
by the arbitrators or Arbitration Committee in case of appeal. 

/. OFFER OF SETTLEMENT. In every case involving 
dispute, where the arbitrators and umpire decide that the contract 
has been properly fulfilled by the seller, or, in every case where 



Appendix 217 

the seller has, before the arbitration, offered settlement which is 
held by the arbitrators and umpire to be sufficient, but which the 
buyer refused to accept, the fees shall be paid by the buyer; but 
where the buyer has offered a settlement and the seller has re- 
fused to make such settlement, which the arbitrators and umpire 
finally decide is adequate, the fees shall be paid by the seller ; pro- 
vided all offers as above shall have been made in writing. 





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243 



GLOSSARY 



Annulate 

Aromatic 

Cordate 

Crenate 

Elliptical 

Lanceolate 



Mericarp 

Oblong 

Obtuse 

Oval 

Ovate 

Palmate 
Pedicel 
Peduncle 
Pericarp 

Petiole 

Pubescent 

Reniform 

Revolute 

Rhizome 

Rugose 

Spatulate 



Having rings or ring-like segments. 
Fragrant, spicy. 
Heart-shaped. 

Having the margin round-toothed, scalloped. 
Similar to oblong but with continuously round- 
ing sides. 

Widening above the base and gradually tapering 
upwards to a point. Much longer than broad, 
lance-shaped. 

One of the two carpels that compose the fruit 
of a plant of the parsley, or carrot family. 
When nearly twice or thrice as long as broad 
and of uniform breadth. 
With a blunt or rounded apex. 
Broadly elliptical. 

Shaped like a lengthwise section of a hen's tgg. 
Somewhat oval with broader end downward. 
Resembling the open hand. 
The stalk that supports one flower only. 
A flower-stalk. 

The wall of the ovary or ovaries when developed 
or ripened into fruit; the matured ovary. 
The foot-stalk of a leaf. 
Covered with down or soft hairs. 
Kidney-shaped. 

Rolled backward from the margins of the leaf. 
A root-like stem growing under the ground. 
Covered with or full of wrinkles ; corrugate. 
Rounded above and gradually tapering down to 
a narrow base. 
244 



Glossary 



245 



Suffrutescent Having the character of an undershrub or suf- 

frutex; slightly shrubby. 
Suffrutex An undershoot having a decidedly wooden stem. 

Sulcate Having long narrow furrows or channels ; 

grooved, or fluted. 
Truncate Having the end square, appearing as if cut off. 

Umrel A flower cluster in which the flower-stalks 

spring from the same point. 
Umbelliferous Having the mode of flowering called an umbel ; 

a plant which bears umbels. 
Undulate Wavy; rippling. 



FOREIGN WEIGHTS 





China 




Japan 


Catty 


= m lb - 


Kin 


= 1.3228 lb. 


Picul 


= 133^ lb. 


Kwan 


= 8.2673 lb. 






Koku 


= 2240 lb. (Long 




Egypt 


(of 


Ton) 


Oke 


= 2.75136 lb. 


capacity) 




Canbar 


= 99.05 lb. 




Russia 




Greece 


Pood 


= 36.111b. 


Libre 


= 1.1 lb. 






Ocque 


= 2.84 lb. 




Turkey 


Quintal 


= 132.2 lb. 


Oka 


= . 2.828 lb. 



Metric Weights 

The GRAM is the weight of 1 cubic centimeter of pure distilled water 
at its temperature of maximum density, 39.2° F. 



28.35 grams = 1 ounce 



10 milligrams 
10 centigrams 
10 . decigrams 



— 1 centigram 
= 1 decigram 
= 1 gram 
1000 kilograms 



1 kilogram 

10 grams 
10 decagrams 
10 hectograms 
= 1 metric ton 



2.2046 lb. 

1 decagram 
1 hectogram 
1 kilogram 



246 



INDEX 



Acorns calamus, 163 
Adulteration of spices, xi 
Allium capa, 159 
Allium sativum, 158 
Allspice, 21 

— Adulteration, 22 

— Description, 21 

— Essential oil, 22 

— Family, 21 

— Government standards, 23 

— Grinding, 22 

— Nativity and cultivation, 21 

— Packing, 22 

— Plant, 21 

— Properties, 21 

— Starch, 22 

— Uses, 22 

Anethum graveolins, 107 
Angelica, 162 
Anise, Aniseed, 87 

— Adulteration, 88 

— Description, 87 

— Essential oil, 89 

— Family, 87 

— Government standards, 89 

— Grinding, 88 

— Nativity and cultivation, 87 

— Packing, 88 

— Plant, 87 

— Properties, 87 

— Star (see Star anise) 

— Uses, 88 

Apium graveolens, 97 
Archangelica officinalis, 162 
Artemisia dracunculus, 168 



B 



Bay leaves (see Laurel Leaves) 
Benne or Bene seed, 128 
Bologna seasoning formula, 174 
Brassica nigra, 117 



Calamus root, 163 
Capers, 163 
Capparis spinosa, 163 
Capsicum acuminatum, 65 
Capsicum annuum, 65, 66, 67, 74 
Capsicum baccatum, 66, 73 
Capsicum fruits, Vitamin C, 71 
Capsicum f rule sc ens, 66, 67, 73 
Capsicum spices, 65 
Caraway seed, 90 

— Adulteration, 91 

— Description, 90 

— Essential oil, 92 

— Family, 90 

— Government standards, 92 

— Grinding, 91 

— Nativity and cultivation, 90 

— Packing, 92 

— Plant, 90 

— Properties, 90 

— Uses, 91 
Cardamom seed, 93 

— Description, 93 

— Essential oil, 96 

— Family, 93 

— Government standards, 96 

— Grinding, 95 

— Nativity and cultivation, 93 

— Packing, 95 

— Plant, 93 

— Properties, 95 

— Uses, 95 

Carthamus tinctorius, 165 
Carum carvi, 90 
Caryophyllus aromaticus , 40 
Cassia, 30 

— Adulteration, 34 

— Batavia, 32 
Grading, 33 

— — Nativity and cultivation, 32 
Plant, 32 

Properties, 32 



247 



248 



Index 



Cassia, Buds, 35 

■ Packing, 36 

Properties, 35 

— China, 30 

Description, 30 

— — Family, 30 
Grading, 30 

Nativity and cultivation, 30 

Plant, 30 

Properties, 30 

— Essential oil, 34 
Family, 30 

— Government standards, 35 

— Grinding, 34 

— Packing, 34 

— Saigon, 30 
Grading, 32 

Nativity and cultivation, 30 

Plant, 30 

Properties, 31 

— Starch, 34 

— Uses, 34 
Cayenne pepper, 71 

— Adulteration, 73 

— Description, 71 

— Essential oil, 73 

— Family, 71 

— Government standards, 73 

— Grinding, 73 

— Nativity and cultivation, 71 

— Packing, 73 

— Plant, 71 

— Properties, 71 

— Uses, 73 
Celery seed, 97 

— Adulteration, 98 

— Description, 97 

— Essential oils, 99 

— Family, 97 

— Government standards, 99 

— Grinding, 98 

— Nativity and cultivation, 97 

— Packing, 98 

— Plant, 97 

— Properties, 97 

— Uses, 98 
Chillies, 77 

— African, 78 
Properties, 78 

— Chiltepin, 79 

— Congo, 78 

— Domestic Sports, 79 



Chillies, Honka, 79 

— Japanese, 79 

— — Properties, 79 

— Mexican, 79 
Properties, 79 

— Mombasa, 78 

— Nigerian, 78 

— Tabasco, 79 

— Uses, 80 

— USA, 79 

Properties, 79 

Cinnamomum burmanni, 32 
Cinnamomum cassia, 30, 35 
Cinnamomum loureirii, 30 
Cinnamomum zeylanicum, 24 
Cinnamon, Ceylon, 24 

— Adulteration, 28 

— Chips, 27 

— Description, 24 

— Essential oil, 28 

— Family, 24 

— Featherings, 27 

— Government standards, 29 

— Grading, 25 

— Grinding, 28 

— Nativity and cultivation, 24 

— Packing, 28 

— Plant, 24 

— Properties, 24 

— Quillings, 26 

— Quills, 24, 25 

— Starch, 28 

— Uses, 28 

Classification of spices, vii 
Cloves, 37 

— Adulteration, 40 

— Amboyna, 39 

— Description, 37 

— Essential oil, 40 

— Family, 37 

— Government standards, 40 

— Grading, 39 

— Grinding, 40 

— "Khoker," 39 

— Madagascar, 39 

— Nativity and cultivation, 37 

— Packing, 40 

— Pemba, 39 

— Penang, 39 

— Plant, 37 

— Properties, 38 

— Starch, 40 



Index 



249 



Cloves, Uses, 40 

— Zanzibar, 39 
Coriandrum sativum, 100 
Coriander seed, 100 

— Description, 100 

— Essential oil, 103 

— Family, 100 

— Government standards, 103 

— Grinding, 103 

— Nativity and cultivation, 100 

— Packing, 103 

— Plant, 100 

— Properties, 101 

— Uses, 102 
Crocus sativus, 164 
Cuminum cyminum, 104 
Cumin seed, 104 

— Description, 104 

— Essential oil, 106 

— Family, 104 

— Government standards, 106 

— Grinding, 105 

— Nativity and cultivation, 104 

— Packing, 105 

— Plant, 104 

— ■ Properties, 104 

— Uses, 105 
Curcuma longa, 81 
Curcuma zedoaria, 168 
Curry powder, 160 

— Formula, 160 
Cyprus sage, 149 
— ■ Properties, 149 



D 



Dalmatian sage, 147 

— Properties, 147 
Difference in Time, 240 
Dill seed, 107 

— Description, 107 

— Essential oil, 109 

— Family, 107 

— Government standards, 109 

— Grinding, 109 

— Nativity and cultivation, 107 

— Packing, 109 

— Plant, 107 

— Properties, 107 

— Uses, 108 
Distance and Time, xvii 



Elettaria cardamomum, 93 
Essential oil, xiv 



Fennel seed, 110 

— Description, 110 

— Essential oil, 112 

— Family, 110 

— Government standards, 112 

— Grinding, 111 

— Nativity and cultivation, 110 

— Packing, 112 

— Plant, 110 

— Properties, 110 

— Uses, 111 
Fenugreek seed, 113 

— Description, 113 

— Family, 113 

— Government standards, 114 

— Grinding, 114 

— Nativity and cultivation, 113 

— Packing, 114 

— Plant, 113 

— Properties, 113 

— Uses, 114 

Foeniculum vulgar e, 110 
Frankfurter seasoning formula, 174 



Garlic powder, 158 

— Description, 158 
— 'Essential oil, 158 

— Family, 158 

— Government standards, 158 

— Nativity and cultivation, 158 

— Packing, 158 

— Plant, 158 

— Salt, 158 

— Starch, 158 

— Uses, 158 
Gentian root, 163 
Gentiana lutea, 163 
Ginger, 42 

— Adulteration, 44 

— African, 44 

— Calicut, 43 

— Cochin, 43 

— -Description, 42 



250 



Index 



Ginger, Essential oil, 44 

— Family, 42 

— Government standards, 45 

— Grading, 43 

— Grinding, 44 

— Indian, 43 

— Jamaica, 43 

— Japanese, 44 

— Nativity and cultivation, 42 

— Packing, 44 

— Plant, 42 

— Preparation, 42 

— Properties, 43 

— Starch, 44 

— Uses, 44 
Glossary, 244 
Grinding of spices, xii 



H 



Hamburger seasoning formula, 174 
Hindu spice formula, 172 



Illicium verum, 129 
Introduction, vii 



Jamaica pepper, 21 
— pimento, 21 
Juniper berries, 164 
Juniperus communis, 164 



Laurel Leaves, 131 

— Description, 132 

— Essential oil, 133 

— Family, 131 

— Government standards, 133 

— Nativity and cultivation, 132 

— Packing, 133 

— Plant, 131 

— Properties, 132 

— Uses, 133 
Laurus nobilis, 131 

Liver sausage seasoning, 174 
Long pepper, 64 



M 



Mace, 52 

— Adulteration, 54 

— Banda, 52 

— Bombay, 52 
Properties, 53 

— Essential oil, 54 

— Government standards, 54 

— Grading, 53 

— Grinding, 54 

— Macassar, 52, 55 

— Packing, 54 

— Papua, 52, 55 

— Penang, 52 

— Properties, 53 

— Uses, 54 

— Wild, 52 
Marjoram, 134 

— Description, 135 

— Essential oil, 136 

— Family, 134 

— Government standards, 136 

— Grinding, 136 

— Nativity and cultivation, 134 

— Packing, 136 

— Plant, 134 

— Properties, 135 

— Uses, 135 

Marjorana hortensis, 134 
Mentha piperita, 137 
Mentha spicata, 137 

Mexican origanum (see Origanum) 

— Saffron, 165 

— Sage (see Origanum) 
Mint, 137 

— Description, 138 

— Essential oil, 138 

— Family, 137 

— Government standards, 139 

— Grinding, 138 

— Nativity and cultivation, 137 

— Packing, 138 

— Peppermint, 137 

— Plant, 137 

— Properties, 138 

— Spearmint, 137 

— Uses, 138 

Mincemeat spice formula, 173 
Miscellaneous mixtures of spices and 

herbs, 160 
Mixed herbs formula, 175 



Index 



251 



Mustard, 115 

— Adulteration, 117 

■ — Essential oil, 119 

— flour, 117 

— Government standards, 119 

— Ground, 117 

— Packing, 118 

— seed, black, 117 
Description, 117 

— Nativity and cultivation, 117 

- — Plant, 117 

Properties, 117 

brown, 117 

white, 115 • 

Description, 115 

Family, 115 

Nativity and cultivation, 115 

Plant, 115 

Properties, 117 

yellow, 115 

— Starch, 118 

— Uses, 118 
Myristica agentea, 51 
Myristica fragrans, 47, 51 
Myristica malabarica, 52 



Ocimuin basilicum, 166 
Onion, Description, 159 

— Family, 159 

— Nativity and cultivation, 159 

— Plant, 159 

— Powder, 159 

Government standards, 159 

Packing, 159 

Starch, 159 

Uses, 159 

— Salt, 159 

Oregano (see Origanum) 
Origanum, 140 

— Description, 141 

— Essential oil, 141 

— Government standards, 141 

— Grinding, 141 

— Nativity and cultivation, 141 

— Packing, 141 

— Plant, 140 

— Properties, 141 

— Uses, 141 

Origanum marjorana, 140 
Origanum vulgare, 140 



N 



Nutmeg, 47 

— Adulteration, 50 

— Description, 47 

— East Indian, 49 

— Essential oil, 51 

— Family, 47 

— Government standards, 51 

— Grading, 48 
— ■ Grinding, 50 

— Limed, 49 

— Long, 50 

— Macassar, 50 

— Male, 50 

— Nativity and cultivation, 47 

— Packing, 50 

— Papua, 50 

— Penang, 49 

— Plant, 47 

— Properties, 48 

— Starch, 50 

— Uses, 50 

— West Indian, 49 



Packing of Spices, xiii 
Papaver somniferum, 122 
Paprika, 74 

— Adulteration, 76 

— Description, 75 

— Essential oil, 76 

— Family, 74 

— Government standards, 76 

— Grinding, 76 

— Nativity and cultivation, 74 

— Packing, 76 

— Plant, 74 

— Properties, 75 

— Uses, 75 
Parsley, 142 

— Description, 142 

— Essential oil, 143 

— Family, 142 

— Government standards, 144 

— Grinding, 143 

— Nativity and cultivation, 142 

— Packing, 143 

— Plant. 142 



252 



Index 



Parsley, Properties, 142 

— Uses, 143 
Pastry spice, 160 

— formula, 160, 173 
Pepper, 56 

— Adulteration, 61 

— Alleppey, black, 58 

— Black, 56 

Properties, 56 

— Cayenne (see Cayenne Pepper) 

— Description, 56 

. — Essential oil, 62 

— Family, 56 

— Government standards, 63 

— Grinding, 61 

— Lampong, black, 58 

— Long (see Long Pepper) 

— Muntok, white, 61 

— Nativity and cultivation, 56 

— Packing, 62 

— Penang, black, 58 

— Plant, 56 

— Red (see Red Pepper) 

— Saigon, black, 58 

— Sarawak, white, 61 - 

— Siam, white, 61 

— Singapore, black, 58 
white, 60 

— Starch, 62 

— ■ Tellicherry, black, 58 
white, 61 

— Uses, 61 

— White, 58 

Properties, 59 

Peppermint (see Mint) 
Petroselinum sativum, 142 
Pickling spice, 161 

— Whole Mixed, formula, 175 

— Whole Mixed, for fish, formula, 

176 
Pimento officinalis, 21 
Pimento, 21 
Pimpinella anisum, 87 
Piper nigrum, 56 
Poppy seed, 122 

— Blue, 122 

— Description, 122 

— Dyed, 122 

— Essential oil, 124 

— Family, 122 

— Fixed oil, 124 

— Government standards, 124 



Poppy seed, Nativity and cultivation, 
122 

— Packing, 123 

— Plant, 122 

— Properties, 123 

— Uses, 123 

— White, 122 

Pork sausage seasoning formula, 176 
Portuguese sage, 150 

— Properties, 150 
Poultry Dressing, 160 

— Formula, 177 
Properties of Spices, x 
Pumpkin pie spice formula, 173 
Pure Food Laws, xv 

Pure Food Laws, Canada, 10 

— Adulteration, 14 

— Advertising, 12 

— -Import shipments, 11 

— Labelling, 12 

— Limits of variability of net con- 

tents, 10 

— Misbranding, 14 
— • Packing, 12 

— Selling, 12 

Pure Food Laws, U. S. A., 3 

— Adulteration, 4 

— Coal Tar colors, 7 

— Definitions and standards, 4, 6 

— Imports and Exports, 8 

— Misbranding, 5 

— Poisonous ingredients, 7 



Red Pepper, 65 

— Bell Group, 69 
varieties, 70 

— Cayenne (see Cayenne Pepper) 

— Cayenne group, 68 
varieties, 68 

— Celestial group, 69 
— ■ varieties, 69 

— Cherry group, 69 
varieties, 69 

— Chillies (see Chillies) 

— Paprika (see Paprika) 

— Perfection group, 70 
varieties, 70 

• — Tabasco group, 67 
varieties, 67 



Index 



253 



Red Pepper, Tomato group, 70 
varieties, 70 

— Vitamin C content, 71 
Rosemary, 145 

— Description, 145 

— Essential oil, 146 

— Family, 145 

■ — ■ Government standards, 146 

— Grinding, 146 

— Nativity and cultivation, 145 

— Packing, 146 

— Plant, 145 

— Properties, 145 

— Uses, 146 
Rosmarinus officinalis, 145 



Saffron, 164 

— Mexican (see Mexican Saffron) 
Sage, 147 

— Adulteration, 152 

— American, 151 

— Canadian, 151 

— Cyprus (see Cyprus Sage) 

— Dalmatian (see Dalmatian Sage) 

— Description, 147 

— Essential oil, 153 

— Family, 147 

— Government standards, 153 

— Grinding, 152 

— Nativity and cultivation, 147 

— Packing, 152 

— Plant, 147 

— Portuguese (see Portuguese Sage) 

— Properties, 149 

— Spanish (see Spanish Sage) 

— Uses, 152 
Salvia officinalis, 147 
Sassafras, 166 
Sassafras albidum, 166 
Satureia hortensis, 154 
Sausage seasoning, 161 

— Formula, 177 
Savory, 154 

— Description, 154 

— Family, 154 

— Government standards, 155 

— Grinding, 154 

— Nativity and cultivation, 154 

— Packing, 155 



Savory, Plant, 154 

— Properties, 154 

— Uses, 155 
Sesame seed, 127 

— Essential oil, 128 

— Family, 127 

— Government standards, 128 

— Nativity and cultivation, 127 

— Packing, 128 

— Plant, 127 

— Properties, 127 

— Uses, 128 
Sesamum indicum, 127 
Sinapis alba, 115 
Spanish sage, 150 

— Properties, 150 
Spearmint (see Mint) 
Spice Trade Association, xv 
Standard Arrival Contract form, 181 

— Rules, 182 

— Domestic A Contract form, 196 
Rules, 198 

— Domestic B Contract form, 202 
Rules, 203 

— Future Delivery Contract form, 191 
Rules, 192 

— Grinders Contract form, 213 
Rules, 214 

— Spot Contract form, 208 
Rules, 209 

Star Anise, 129 

— Description, 129 

— Essential oil, 130 

— Family, 129 

— Government standards, 130 

— Nativity and cultivation, 129 

— Packing, 130 

— Plant, 129 

— ■ Properties, 129 

— Uses, 130 
Starch, xiii 

Summer sausage seasoning formula, 

177 
Sweet Basil, 166 



Table of Distances (Ports), 218 

— (Junction points), 236 
Tarragon, 168 

Thyme, 156 

— Description, 156 



254 



Index 



Thyme, Essential oil, 157 

— Family, 157 

— Government standards, 157 

— Grinding, 157 

— Nativity and cultivation, 156 

— Packing, 157 

— Plant, 156 

— Properties, 156 

— Uses, 156 
Thymus vulgaris, 156 
Trigonella foenum-graecum, 113 
Turmeric, 81 

— Adulteration, 82 

— Alleppey, 81 

— Description, 81 

— Essential oil, 83 

— Family, 81 

— Government standards, 83 

— Grinding, 83 

— Haiti, 81 

— Madras, 81 



Turmeric, Nativity and cultivation, 81 

— Packing, 83 

— Plant, 81 

— Properties, 81 

— Starch, 83 

— Uses, 82 



U 



Uses of spices, x 

V 

Valerian root, 168 
Valeriana officinalis, 168 



Zedoary root, 168 
Zingiber officinale, 42 



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The spice handbook; sci 
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